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Full text of "The General Magazine Vol18i4"



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The AVALON HILL 

GENERAL 

The Game Players Magazine 

The Avaidfi Hill GENERAL'S dedicated 10 the presenta- 
tion of authoritative articles on trie strategy, tactics, and 
variaTion of Avalon H'N wargames Historical alleles are 
included only insomuch as they provde useful background 
informal ion on current Avafon Hill Titles. Tha GENERAL is 
pub I -shed by the Avalon Hill Game Company solely for Ihe 
cultural education of the serious game alicionado, in the 
hopes of improvrn-Q. ihe game owner's proficiency of play and 
providing services nor otherwise available 10 ihe Avalon Hill 
game buff Avalon Hill is a division of Monarch Avalon 
industries. Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Monarch 
Avalon, Inc. The shares of Monarch Avalon, Inc. are publicly 
traded on the NASDAQ System under Ihe symbol MAHI For 
information about the company write to Harold Cohen at the 
executive offices of the company, 4517 Harford ftd., 
Baltimore. MD 2T214. 

Publication is bi-monthly witn mailings made close to 
the. and of February, April, June, August. Cctooer and 
December . All editorial and general mail should be sent to the 
Avalon Hill Game Company, 451 7 Harford Road, Baltimore, 
WD 21214, One year subscriptions are S9-.00. Two year 
subscriptions are $14.00. All domestic subscriptions sent 
via bulk permit Domestic First Class Delivery and all 
subscriptions to Canada and Mexico must pay an additional 
59.00 per year postage Charge. All overseas subscriptions 
must add an additional 5 12.00 per year postage charge. 
Send checks or money orders only. AH is not responsible for 
cash tost m transit, Those with a current American Express, 
VISA. MasterCard or Choice may call 600-638-9292 toll 
free to fene w subscriptions or order merchandise Abs nlu tely 
no complaints or questions will be handled on ihis number. 
Any business other than a credit card purchase must be 
handled by mail Address changes must be submitted at leas* 
6 weeks in advance to guarantee delivery. Paid advertising is 
not accepted, but news of importance to ihe gaming, com- 
munity is solicited. Convention announcements must be 
received at least 3 months in advance and contain informa- 
tion per Taming to AH games in use. 

Articles from subscribers are considered for publication 
at lha discretion of our editorial staff. Articles should be 
typewritten, double-spaced, and embrace the tenets of good 
English usage. Tbereis no limit to word length. Accompany- 
ing examples and diagrams sheu'ef. be neailv done in black or 
red ink. Photographs should have caption and credit line 
written on back Rejected articles will be returned whenever 
possible 

EDITOR: Donald J. Greenwood 
AS ST EDITOR: Alan fl. Moon 

GRAPHICS: Jean Baer, Dale Sheaffer. Charles Kiblar. 
Rodger Mac Go wan.. Stephanie Qech 
Cover Art: Mark Wheatfey 
AREA Technician: Diana Widener 
GENERAL Subscriptions: Gertrude 2ombro 
Purchases of Gamea, PBM kits and parts: Christy Shaw 
FOREIGN DISTRIBUTORS: Overseas readers are urged to 
make subscription arrangements with the appropriate agent, 
AUSTRALIA: Jedko Games. 18 Fonceca St., Mordiallcc, 
3195, Victoria; DENMARK Jorn Enksen, Sondertollen 209, 
OK 2630 Taastrup; GREAT BRITAIN, Avalon Hill IUK1 LTD, 
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JAPAN: Post Hobby. 1-38 Yoyogi, Shibura-KU, Tokyo; 
SINGAPORE Wang International Entr . fj Jalan Sinar Bulan; 
Singapore 1750; SOUTH AFRICA Gamma Games Ltd, P.O. 
Box 2S04, Capetown 8000; SWEDEN. Target Games. 
Skogvaktsrgatan 2, S— 1 T&42 Stockholm, or A B. flojama, 
P.O. Box 23077. S-104 35 Stockholm, 
flutes Question*: R&D. NOTE: all questions should be 
diagrammed No Questions can bo answered which are 
unaccompanied by a sell -addressed envelope Questions 
must be based on rules oi ptey Inot historical or design 
mailers I and be based on the current rules edition. Questions 
on more than one garne must be listed on separate pages and 
accompanieo by a separate SASE for each game 
IF YOU CHANGE YOUR ADDRESS: Inform us immediately 
The Post Office destroys magazines even if you leave a 
(awarding address AH ASSUMES MO RESPONSIBILITY 
FOR ISSUES LOST DUE TO AN INVALID ADDRESS. Pfease 
state both your new and old address. 

Copyright 1901 

Th<> 

AVALON HELL 

4*ai»ti> Company 

4517 Harford Road. / 
Baltimore. Md. 21214 



Avalon Hill Philosophy Part 88 




THE AWARDS 

I must be an unusually ornery individual. I've 
always been told that one is supposed to mellow as 
he grows older, but ■ seem to raise more ire with 
each passing day. Last issue I probably succeeded 
in alienating half the gamers in California by printing 
my review of PACIFIC ORIGINS instead of politely 
abstaining from comment. I find it particularly ironic 
that I seem to have been singled out in some circles 
(largely through my perhaps unfortunate ties with 
Atlanticon, Inc., an outgrowth of Interest Group 
Baltimore, the gaming club which started ORIGINS 
and which will sponsor it again this year) as a culprit 
in plotting to keep ORIGINS on the east coast. From 
my point of view, nothing could be further from the 
truth. Howie Barasch and I were instrumental in 
establishing ORIGINS as a traveling show. From 
1977 through 1980 I did more, to my knowledge, 
than anyone involved with ORIGINS to encourage 



potential west coast sponsors to make a bid to host 
ORIGINS (including some of the principals of 
PACIFICON). Unfortunately, those same people 
and at least one hobby 'zine in California have 
apparently interpreted my involvement with, and 
enthusiasm for, our local group as hostility towards 
any west coast convention. I guess this means that 
a person can't enthusiastically support east and 
west coast conventions simultaneously. I haven't 
realty figured out why, but for those who have 
already come to that conclusion I apologize for con- 
fusing you. In truth, I am probably the most avid 
supporter of a west coast ORIGINS because I can't 
wait for the chance to go back. Anyway, this time I 
thought I'd chance tweaking the noses of a few of 
my colleagues in the Adventure Gaming industry by 

Continued on Page 18, Column 2 




GLADIATOR 

The subject, The Game, & Expansion of the Arena 

THE WISDOM OF THE ARENA 

Assessing Your Chances in GLADIATOR 

SQUAD LEADER SURVEY 

How the Public Perceives the Scenarios 

TACTICAL LEVEL LUFTWAFFE 

Combat Resolution at a More Vivid Scale 

HOME BEFORE THE SNOW FALLS 

A WAR & PEACE 1 812 Scenario Series Replay 

SQUAD LEADER CLINIC 

Wire and its Effects in the SL Game System 

STAFF BRIEFING 

An Interview With Alan R. Moon 

AIR DROP ON CRETE 

Strategy For Both Sides in AAOC 

ASSAULT FROM THE AIR BY MAIL 

A PBM System for AAOC 

ON TO BERLIN 

Balancing the Fortress Europa Scenario 

BRITISH STRATEGY IN WAR AT SEA 

Six Ways to Domination o f t he European Theatre 

BACK TO BASICS 

Basic German Alternatives in AFRIKA KORPS 



By Thomas C. Springsteen 

14 

By Bob Medrow 

By Joe and Mike Suchar 

19 

By Kenneth Erbey 

23 

By B. Parsons, C. Bruegge, & M. McLaughlin 

30 

By Jon Mishcon 

32 

By Don Greenwood 

34 

By Don Eisan 

36 

By Don Eisan 

37 
By Jim Eliason 

40 

By Ray Freeman 

42 

By Robert Beyma 



microcomputer games- 

AN EXPANDED SELECTION OF "TRUE TO LIFE" GAMES 

FOR THE HOME COMPUTER BY THE AVALON HILL GAME COMPANY, 

THE WORLD'S #1 ADULT GAME PUBLISHER. 

The Avalon Hill Game Company, a pioneer in the design of adventure games, presents a totally 

different breed of computer strategy games. Each is complete with loading and playing 

instructions, along with cassette or diskette software for the four most popular home computers. 

When ordering be sure to specify which computer it is for. 



p i njjjJA 




TANKTICS 

Armored combat on lie Eastern front of WWI 

i Includes full-color mounted mapboard and 

\ counters. You. as lie German tank platoon 

leader, start the game outnumbered 2 to 1 . 

However, you choose your tank types before 

each of 5 scenarios. You also specify what 

your opponent, the computer, is to have 

before going after or defending the 

specified objective from the Russians. 

':., 16K cass: TRS-80 level II 
te Appiell.Pet200t $24 
p» 24K cass: Atari 800 S24 

\ 32 K disk: TRS-80 level II 
^S'*-' Apple II. Atari BOO 

£29 




MAJOR LEAGUE 
BASEBALL 

Recreate an entire baseball season, cham- 
pionship or world series wilh real lite player 
statistics. Avalon Hill has analyzed full 
season statistics for each player, converting 
it to computer memory so each performs in 
your game just as he does in reality. YOUR 
ability at managing could make an also-ran 
become a pennanl winner. 



l6Kcass: TRS-80 Model! 
32Kcass' Apple ii 
32K disk. TRS-80 Model I 
48K disk Apple II 




STOCKS AND BONDS 

Here's your chance to be a Wall Street 
genius. Players choose a general strategy 
and invest in the stocks that lit their game- 
plan. Play it safe, gamble or do a little of 
both. In a "bear" market players investing 
heavily could lose their shirts, while a 
"bull" market would cause Ihem to make 
great gains. The winner makes the most 
money through game transactions. 



32KdiSk: Apple U 



EMPIRE OF THE 
OVERMIND 

Enchanting solilaire game. Embark upon an 
herioc quest to a different plane of reality. 
The Overmind, a tyrant that is part machine, 

part spirit of evil, cleverly overthrew the 
great king, who escaped and planned 
revenge thai has taken 1 ,000 years to fulfill. 
Now. YOU must travel to the Empire of the 
Overmind and destroy the abomination, in- 
cludes deluxe copy of Rhyme of the Over- 
mind. 



40K cass: Atari 800 

43K cass: TRS-80 IL Apple II 

48K disk: TRS-80 II, Apple II 



$30 
S30 
S35 



MIDWAY CAMPAIGN 

Your computer controls a huge force of 
Japanese ships whose objective is to invade 
and capture Midway Island. In the actual 
engagement, the Japanese made several 
tactical errors which cos! them the batlle. 
Your computer probably won't make the 
same mistakes! You command the badly 
outnumbered and outranged U.S. Naval 
Forces. Your only advantage is surprise. 



16K cass' TRS-80 II. Apple II, Pet 2001 

32 K cass Atari 800 

32K disk: TRS-80 II, Apple II 

40K disk: Atari 800 



16Kcass: TRS-80 II. Apple If, Pel 2001 
32K cass: Atari 800 
32Kdisk. TRS-80 II. Apple II 
40K disk: Atari 800 



■ 

t 

i 



S25 
$25 

S30 
S30 




1 



CONFLICT 2500 

n 2500 AD. earlh is threatened by attacking 
aliens programmed with an infinite number 
of attack strategies with which to lease the 
player who must defend earth. A variety of 
spaceships on the screen adds an extra 
dimension to I he excitement and suspense 
of this clever SF game. 



S15 
S15 
$20 
$20 



i 




LORDS OF KARMA 

Like an intriguing puzzle! The tun is in 
deciphering secrets while exploring a 
mythical, magical city and countryside, 
while 31 the same time avoiding lurking 
monsters. You tell tho computer what you 
wanl by typing simple sentences. The com- 
puter has many surprises in store. 



32K cass: Apple il and Pet 2001 
tOK cass: Alari 800 
48K cass: TRS-80 II 
4BKdi£k: TRS-80 II, Applell 



S20 
$20 
$20 
$25 




Nufcewar 



JJJJa 




NUKEWAR 

Nuclear confrontation between two 
hypothetical countries. Delend your country 
by massive espionage efforts , or by building 
jet fighter bombers, missiles, submarines 
and anti-ballistic missiles. Your cold and 
calculating computer will choose its own 
strategy! Very last paced for players of all 
ages and levels of experience. 



16Kcass: TRS-80 II. Apple II. 

Pet 2001 . Alari 800 
24K disk: Atari 80O 
32K disk ■ TRS-80 1 1 . Apple II 



PLANET MINERS 

One to lour players compete with each other 
and the computer to stake valuable mining 
claims throughout the solar system in the 
year 2050. Each player must decide which 
ships to send to which planets and when to 
try "dirty tricks'" like a sabotage and claim 
jumping. 



1 6K cass: TRS-80 1 1 . Apple 1 1 . Pel 200 1 

24K cass: Atari 800 

32K disk: TRS-80 II, Apple II. Atari 800 







DOMING SOON! More Microcomputer Games 

To be released "as ready" during 1981: 

COMPUTER FOOTBALL STRATEGY 

You calf the plays in this award winning game of head-lo-head strategy. Based on 

the popular Sports Illustrated board game. 

DRAW POKER 

Computer version of the classic 5-card draw poker game . , , compteie wilh belling 

and bluff. Destined to he a favorite. 

GUNS OF FORT DEFIANCE 

Re-enact exciting episodes of the War oil 81 2. YOU are commander ot a cannon 

crew lacing a British infantry, cavafry or cannon attack, 

DNIEPER RIVER LINE 

Can you, as the German commander, halt ihe onslaught of Ihe Russian army? Game 

will include detailed counters and mapboard featuring many different types of 

terrain. 



COMPUTER ACQUIRE 

The object of the game is to become the 
wealthiest person in this "business" game 
aboul hofel acquisitions and mergers. For 2 
to .6 players il is a subtle game of interplayer 
strategy. As a SOLITAIRE game you play 
against the computer. One can even pit the 
computer against itself in (his faithful 
recreation of the classic board game. 



1 BK cass: TRS-flO II . Apple ti. Pel 2001 
32Kdisk TRS-BO II. Applell 



S20 
$25 



I" 

i 

i 



i 





B-1 NUCLEAR BOMBER 

You are the pilot ol a B-1 bomber on a mis- 
sion over the Soviet Union You must Fly 
through stiff Russian defenses to the targe! 
city, bomb il and return home. Your com- 
puter controls the Soviet (VUG lighters and 
surface-to-air missiles. You must rely on 
your electronic counter measures and self- 
defense missiles. 



1 6 K cass : TRS-80 1 1 . Apple 1 1 . Pel 2001 

24 K cass: Alari 800 

32k drsk TRS-80 II. Applell 






NORTH ATLANTIC 
CONVOY RAIDER 

In the Bismarck convoy raid of 1941, the 
computer controls the British convoys and 
battleships. Will Ihe Bismarck sink Ihe 
Hood, only to be sunk by the Rodney and 
King George V. as in history? Or, will the 
Bismarck cripple or sink the Briiish Home 
Fleet and go 'ampaging Ihrough Ihe convoy 
lanes? 



T 



16K cass: TRS-80 II, Apple II, 




Pet 2001 , Atari 800 


SIS 


24K disk. Atari 800 


$20 


32Kdisk: TRS-80 II, Applell 


$20 



i 




microcomputer games" 

GISTERED TRADEMARK OF MICROCOMPUTER GAMES. INC. 

A Division of 

le AVALON HILL Game Company 

Harford Road • Baltimore, MD 21214 
301-254-5300 

>ple. Pet & Atari are registered trademarks for Tandy Corp., Apple 
. Inc., Commodore Business Machines & Warner Communications 



i 




THE SUBJECT, THE GAME, & EXPANSION OF THE ARENA 

By; Thomas C. Springsteen 



GLADIATOR, one of Avalon Hill's most 
recent game releases, can only be described as a 
gaming phenomenon. [ have never known a game 
to attract such quantities of players from so many 
other varied subject , scale and period interests. The 
game, originally released by Battleline, apparently 
underwent extensive revision and received the usual 
Avalon Hill upgrading of components. Perhaps 
part of the reason for GLADIA TOR 's success is its 
uniqueness in several areas. Its low unit count (nor- 
mally one man per player) allows for a wealth of 
simulation detail without the normal penalty of in- 
convenient game length. 1 have had games ranging 
in duration from two minutes (Yes, 1 lost and am 
still trying to rationalize what happened!) to an 
awesome duel between two massively armored 
heavy gladiators that lasted nearly two hours. 
Generally speaking, ihe 15-30 minute playing time 
indicated on the box appears valid. The short game 
duration time allows for numerous engagements in 
an afternoon or evening of play. As a matter of 
fact, the playing time and low unit density have 
enabled me to play a number of games over my 
lunch hour, and has generated a lot of interest in the 
hobby at the office! The short playing time has 
another subtle advantage. By gaining rapid ex- 
perience with the system, players quickly absorb the 



rules and are able to concentrate their attention on 
tactics and opponent's techniques. The result is that 
a novice player doesn't remain "trident-fodder" 
Tor long. In fact, our game club now has more 
tough Kirk Douglas/Spartacus types than 1 care to 
think about before entering the arena! 

Another area where GLADIATOR is rather 
unique is Us merging of the flavor of currently 
popular role playing games and the traditional 
"wargame". In many respects, it is a hybrid com- 
bination of the two. If one plays either of the cam- 
paign games, you discover that your gladiators 
develop different personalities and reputations that 
have psychological effects on your opponent as well 
as on your own styleof play with them (i.e. reckless, 
cautious, bold . . . ). The character development 
has one additional and very interesting result. 
Gamers seem to enjoy watching a match almost as 
much as participating in one {shades of the 
Colosseum!!). Champions and villains emerge, 
with everyone enjoying witnessing a justly deserv- 
ing gladiator in the campaign game getting his 
rightful due (io the snorts, hoots and chuckles of 
the spectators). Being both fun to watch and a good 
simulation, it has enabled many a spectator to 
follow the action and become interested in the 
hobby. 



The purpose of this article is three-fold. First, 1 
hope to provide "color" to the game by presenting 
some of the history behind Ihe subject. This 
hopefully, since the game is a reasonable simula- 
tion, will also prove beneficial in development of 
tactics. The second portion of the article is intended 
to provide someone unfamiliar with the game with a 
critique of its components and system. Lastly, the 
final section will expand the system, allowing 
players to introduce new types of adversaries and 
incorporate a solitaire play option. 

THE SUBJECT 

One disturbing, and disappointing, feature of 
the game was ils lack of designer's notes. A few rule 
ambiguities could have been clarified and addi- 
tional enjoyment added to a good system, by in- 
cluding a historical section on the subject with ap- 
propriate designer commentary. This section will 
hopefully void that omission. 

1 feel that the purpose of providing the history 
of a subject is basically two-fold. First, it provides 
interest, "color" if you will, on the subject. A large 
part of gaming is the vicarious thrill and enjoyment 
that it produces. Familiarization with the situation 
and atmosphere of a simulation greatly enhances 



this facet of the hobby. The second benefit derived 
from a historical review of the subject is that it can 
directly benefit your play. If a game is a reasonable 
simulation as well, strategic and tactical lessons 
recorded in history can be applied with good results 
to the gaming board. 

Few periods in history have received more atten- 
tion than the Roman Republic. It is one of the most 
colorful and awesome eras of mankind's history, as 
is readily evidenced by both literature and 
Hollywood. An interesting and unique segment of 
that era was the spectacle of gladiatorial games. 

Originated in Etruria, in central Italy, the first 
exhibition of gladiatorial (LAT. Gladius "sword") 
combat was held in 264 B.C. as a funeral celebra- 
tion. The sons of Brutus Peragavea "spectacle" of 
three duels in his honor during the funeral 
ceremony. The Romans, always great borrowers, 
were first introduced to gladiatorial combat 
through the Etruscans, one of their most for- 
midable opponents in the conquest of Italy. To the 
Etruscans, the gladiatorial combat was a form of 
human sacrifice originally associated with the 
solemn ritual surrounding death. Once the games 
were transferred to Rome, however, they gradually 
lost their religious significance and, under the 
Roman social system, were transformed to a very 
different purpose. That purpose was the gratifica- 
tion of the enormous urban proletariat, which 
demanded, among other things, that it should be 
amused. 

Although there were many arenas built 
throughout the empire, none can compare to the 
amphitheater known as the Colosseum, Some 
historians fee! that the Colosseum's name 
originated from the colossal statue oT Nero which 
stood nearby. Most, however, feel that it was a 
tribute to the amphitheater's gigantic size. Begun in 
the year 72, the inaugural festivities were held in the 
year 80, in the still uncompleted amphitheater, 
which was finished in 96. 

The statistics of the Colosseum are truly 
astounding. Occupying six acres, the elliptical 
structure was four stories (over 150 feet) high, it 
measured 620 by 513 feet and enclosed an oval 
arena 287 feet long by 180 feet wide. Most 
historians estimate (hat between 45,000 and 50,000 
spectators were accommodated, (Madison Square 
Garden in New York holds 18,903.) Around the 
arena, behind a lofty 13 foot protective wall, rosea 
spacious podium, or marble terrace. The ornate 
marble seats were reserved for senators, priests, and 
high officials. Above the podium was the sug- 
gestrum, or high lodge, where the emperor and em- 
press sat on thrones of ivory and gold. Above them 
rose tiers of marble seats divided into two main 
zones: the first for distinguished private citizens, 
the second for members of the middle class. A third 
zone was allocated to the foreigners and slaves, and 
a fourth to women and the poor. On the roof was 
stationed a detachment of sailors from the imperial 
warships, and it was their task to attend the massive 
velarium, a colored awning that protected the 
audience against sun and rain. Scattered fountains 
threw up jets of scented water to cool the air. At 
noon most of the spectators hurried below to eat 
lunch. Concessionaires were on hand to sell food, 
sweets and drinks. Occassionally the emperor 
would feed the entire multitude. If contests were 
held at night, a circle of lights could be lowered over 
the arena and the spectators. Bands of musicians 
performed in the interludes and accompanied the 
climaxes of the combat with exciting crescendo. 

From the first modest Roman "spectacle" in- 
volving three pairs of duelists, the games sometimes 
reached awesome proportions, Gaius Julius Caesar 
exhibited contests of such proportions that the 
senate was impelled to limit the number of con- 
testants. This ruling did not prevent him from ex- 
hibiting 300 pairs on one occasion. In 46 B.C., after 



his defeat of Pompey, he presented a miniature 
holocaust that involved 1 ,000 ordinary gladiators, 
60 mounted men and 40 elephants. The largest con- 
test of gladiators recorded was that given by the 
emperor Trajan to celebrate a victory over the 
Dacians in 106 A. D., with no Tewer than 5,000 pairs 
of contestants. 

Sham naval battles were occasionally held in the 
arena or on nearby artificial lakes. The largest of 
these naval battles, or naumachia, was staged by 
Claudius on Fucini Lake (now called Lago di 
Fucino), sixty miles from Rome. Twenty- four 
triremes (three banks of oars) and twenty-six 
bircmes (double bank), all regulation oceangoing 
warships, were divided into two equal fleets and 
manned by 19,000 criminals. The victorious sur- 
vivors of the spectacle, witnessed by a crowd of over 
500,000 spectators, were given a pardon. 

A particularly popular spectacle were the 
"hunts" {venationes) where wild beasts fought men 
or each other. The dictator Sulla (93 B.C.) once ex- 
hibited 100 lions in the arena; Julius Caesar had 
400. In one day under Nero, 400 tigers fought with 
bulls and elephants; on another day, under 
Caligula, 400 bears were slain. Pompey once had a 
spectacle with 600 lions, 20 elephants and 410 
leopards. Claudius made a division of the 
Praetorian Guard fight panthers; Nero made them 
fight 400 bears and 300 lions. After Trajan's victory 
over the Dacians, he had 11,000 animals killed in 
the arena, 3,000 in just two days. At the dedication 
of the Colosseum, 5,000 animals died. Many 
animals were introduced to the arena: elephants, 
rhinoceroses, tigers, lions, leopards, panthers, 
bulls, bears, hippopotami, boars, crocodiles and 
pythons to name but a few. The Colosseum was 
sometimes transformed into a jungle scene or other 
terrain by adding trees, rocks and other props for 
these battles. In some of the conflicts, one of the 
pair of animals was attached to a chain staked to the 
center of the arena. In others, the animals were 
chained together— just about any conceivable 
match was explored. At times, the restricted arena 
was filled with a variety of beasts. Specially trained 
gladiators called venatores and bestiarii were often 
matched against the animals. Both forms of 
gladiators will be addressed in more detail later. 
Before the venationes were finally abolished in the 
sixth century, many noble species of wild animals 
vanished from the Roman Empire: North Africa 
had lost its elephants; Nubia its hippopotami; 
Mesopotamia, the lions recorded in Assyrian bas- 
reliefs; and Hyrcania, its famous Caspian tigers. 
These, and many others, had been chased oul of 
their natural habitat or exterminated for the Roman 
audiences. 

Due to the length of time covered by the 
gladiatorial games, from the first three pairs in 264 
B.C. until their abolishment by Emperor Honorius 
in 404 A. D. (though criminals were still condemned 
to fight beasts for at least another hundred years), 
the nature of the conflict underwent substantial 
evolution. At the highest level the matches were ex- 
hibitions between highly trained, skilled, profes- 
sional gladiators and were more of a sport. Because 
the gladiators were extensively trained in special 
schools (Ludi), fatalities were relatively rare and 
missus often granted. Sometimes draws were 
declared and both opponents were allowed to cease 
combat and withdraw. In the lowest level, the 
games degenerated to matches to the death between 
untrained opponents. Sometimes the victor was 
forced to continue combat with a fresh gladiator 
until only one was left at the end of the day, and he 
(if a criminal) was sometimes still executed. One 
aspect of the period, not discussed in this article, 
was the wholesale public extermination of par- 
ticular groups (especially the Christians) in the 
arena. The following descriptions redect the pomp 
and ceremony of the games in their hey-day. 



A typical day started with bloodless duels which 
were often comic or fantasy related. Women, 
dwarfs and cripples performed with weapons often 
made of wood. The blast of the tuba, or war 
trumpet, heralded thebeginningof the main perfor- 
mance. The spectacle opened with a parade of 
chariots carrying the contestants, who were robed 
in purple and gold-embroidered cloaks. The 
gladiators dismounted and circled the arena. 
Behind the contestants came slaves displaying each 
gladiator's helmet and weapons. The helmets were 
especially splendid pieces of workmanship. They 
generally had visors covering the whole face, a wide 
brim, and a lofty ridge on top which frequently bore 
a crest of ostrich or peacock plumes. Forced 
gladiators were escorted into the ring by a troop of 
trainers/managers supported by slaves brandishing 
whips and/or hot irons to motivate fighters who 
seemed too timid to move forward. 

As the procession reached the emperor's box, 
each gladiator stopped, extended his right arm and 
uttered the proud and defiant cry: "Ave, iffl- 
perawr, morituri ie SalutaniV (Hail, Emperor, 
men soon to die salute thee!) Suetonius records 
that once the Emperor Claudius, a notoriously im- 
pulsive and unstable person, answered the 
gladiators' claim thai they were "soon to die" by 
vulgarly shouting back "or maybe not", which so 
offended and unnerved ihe contestants that they 
threatened to break off the show. The Gladiatorial 
Corps, although largely recruited from criminals 
and POWs, bad a strong sense or professional 
dignity. Opponents were often drawn in a formal 
drawing of lots, followed by a weapon inspection 
ceremony, and finally the initiation of combat. 

The rituals following combat have come down 
to us, and are perhaps even more interesting. A 
defeated but surviving gladiator could appeal for 
mercy by throwing away his shield and raising a 
finger of the left band; then, unless the emperor 
himself were present, it was his victorious adversary 
who either spared or condemned him. Going 
against the crowd, however, could have an adverse 
effect on the fate of a gladiator when his moment of 
truth arose. Occasionally a gladiator was killed by a 
man he had previously spared. An epitaph to a 
fallen gladiator advised all those that followed after 
to: "Take warning from my fate. Give no quarter, 
whoever the fallen may be!" 

In the sovereign's presence, the crowd advised 
the ruler by waving cloths and displaying upturned 
thumbs, snouting "Mine!" (Let him go free), or 
downturned thumbs and "Jugula!" {Cut his 
throat!). The ruler would decide the gladiator's fate 
by granting his plea or, with pollice verso, 
downturned thumb, order immediate execution. 
An individual costumed as Hermes (herald and 
messenger of the gods) verified death by prodding 
the fallen gladiator with a red-hot caduceus. Death 
being established, an attendant arrayed as Charon 
(Etruscan minister of fate) took possession of the 
soul by administering a blow to the head with his 
emblematic hammer. 

At the end of a show lists were prepared: P 
meant perished; V meant vanquised his Toe; M 
meant missus (sent off), indicating that he had lost 
but been allowed to depart. The triumphant sur- 
vivor of many fights became a hero. He received 
magnificent rewards, cheers, a palm branch or 
crown, and he carried from the arena a silver dish 
heaped with prize money. In fact, some profes- 
sional gladiators complained that they were not 
allowed to fight often enough! 

The life expectancy and chances for freedom of 
a gladiator varied with the era in which the games 
were conducted. Freedom could be granted at any 
time by the emperor for a particularly outstanding 
feat. More commonly, the gladiators bad to survive 
a required time or series of combats to gain freed- 
man status. These requirements seemed to vary 



with [he period. A common prerequisite was three 
years' survival in the ring, followed by two years of 
slavery, after which freedom was granted. In the 
age of Nero and Claudius, a gladiator trying for 
freedom had to survive one last duel— single com- 
bat with an elephant! It is difficult to be certain how 
many limes a gladiator had to face death. Some 
games lasted several days, and sometimes as long as 
a month. Sometimes a gladiator had to fight twice 
in the course of a spectacle. One gladiator named 
Felix opposed the same retarius after several days' 
interval. Twice defeated, he was granted missus by 
the crowd the first time and condemned the second. 
Generally speaking, it appears that gladiators were 
only required to engage in combat several times a 
year. A gladiator named Juvenis, for example, was 
killed at the age of twenty-one after four years in the 
profession, and had had only five combats. Many, 
killed between age 20 and 25, fought only seven 
times. This average agrees to documented records 
of men in their thirties. Some enrolled at the age of 
seventeen or eighteen and died young, barely pasl 
twenty. Rarely did a gladiator reach the age of 
thirty without at least twenty victories credited. One 
gladiator that reached that age, named Flamma, 
had the following record: wins, 21; "slans missus" 
(draw, and both granted mercy), 9; missus (losl,but 
granted mercy), 4, owing his life to the generosity of 
the spectators. 

Gladiators were classified into major types, 
based on the arms or methods of fighting. There 
were as many as fifteen distinct types and numerous 
variations. During the imperial era, the Roman 
gladiator was usually one of four main classes: 

THRACIAN — Heavily armored. Heavy, elaborate 
helmet. Body (except chest) covered with pieces of 
metal and leather. A small shield was held in the left 
hand. He wore a red loincloth supported at the 
waisl by a sword-belt (balteus). Both legs were 
covered by metal half-cylinders (ocreae) fixed 
against the shin of ihe leg. With Thracians, ihis 
greave also covered the knee and a small part of the 
hip. The left arm was covered by a leather sleeve 
reinforced by metal scales {manica), leaving only 
the fingers exposed. The offensive weapon was 
either an unusual sword bent at nearly right angles, 
or a fairly short sabre (sica) which was curved like a 
scythe. His normal adversaries were either the 
hoplomachus or myrmillo. Heavy and slowed by 
the armor, theThracian concentrated his efforts on 
attack, depending on his armor for protection. 
Only a small shield was granted due to the extensive 
armor. Lower endurance was a factor in the com- 
bat, due to the massive protection. 

SAMNITE (divided into two tvpes: 
HOPLOMACHUS and SECUTOR)— adapted 
from formidable Samnite warriors encountered 
and vanquished by Rome in the early days of the 
Republic. 

Hoplomachus/Samnite — Heavy helmet, but nearly 
naked. Held a large, rounded, oblong shield which 
completely covered him when held in front, expos- 
ing only head and feel, it was similar to the large 
quadrangular shield carried by the Roman 
Legionary. He wore an ocrea on his left leg and 
leather bands [fasciae) on the wrists, knee and ankle 
of the unprotected leg. Armed with a sword, the 
hoplomachus was deprived of his normal oppo- 
nent's (Thracian) heavy armor, but compensated 
with the enormous shield. Being less encumbered, 
he was more agile and less prone to endurance loss. 
Thus, an extended combat was to his advantage. 

Secular /Samniie ("Chaser", so named because he 
pursued his antagonist)— The heavy, spherical, 
plumed helmet gave this warrior an imposing ap- 
pearance. Wore ocrea on left leg and a sort of 
cuirass (spongia) covering the chest. He was pro- 
tected by a type of shield known as the scutum, 
quadrangular and concave, flaring out slightly at 



the top to protect the shoulders and chest. The 
secutor's shield was sometimes referred to as a 
buckler. Armed with a sword {gtaditu), the secutor 
was the special opponent of the retarius. Some 
sources go so far as to say that a secutor did not 
oppose any other type of gladiator. His danger to 
the retarius lay more in the force and shock of his 
attack than in the mobility suggested by his name. 
Characterizing an ordinary infantryman, the 
secutor was a well-balanced and deadly foe. 

RETARIUS— Generally was unarmored, or very 
lightly protected by a broad leather belt about the 
lower trunk. Unlike most other gladiators, he wore 
no helmet or greaves and carried no shield. His sole 
armor was generally a manica (see THRACIAN) on 
his left arm, specially modified by adding a wide 
metal shoulder piece (galerus) to protect the head, 
neck and shoulder from lateral blows. He generally 
carried three weapons — a trident, a net, and a small 
dagger. The trident, generally kept thrust out by the 
left arm, was as much a defensive weapon as an of- 
fensive one. The most distinguishing feaiure oT the 
retarius was the net {iaculum), which was fringed 
with small lead weights to open into a circle when 
thrown. He attempted to entangle his clumsier 
opponent in the net and kill him with the trident or 
dagger. If the net attack was unsuccessful, a cord 
attached to his wrist enabled him to snatch it back. 
If he succeeded in ensnaring his opponent or tearing 
away his shield, the battle was almost won, but if he 
lost his trident (as must have often happened, since 
he was provided with a dagger as an auxiliary 
weapon), he had to have exceptional skill in order to 
defeat in hand to hand combat an enemy now 
armed to the teeth in comparison. 

The retarius never fought another retarius. He 
nearly always fought a secutor (symbolizing the 
struggle between water and fire; on one side pure, 
elusive movement and on the other the irresistible 
force of the flame) or myrmillo. His main advan- 
tage was his mobility and the range of his weapons. 
It was to the advantage of the retarius to extend the 
engagement, whittling away at his opponent from a 
distance, and utilizing his higher endurance due to 
the lack of heavy armor. 

MYRMILLO ("fisherman", because he wore a 
fish-shaped crest and usually fought the retarius, or 
net-wielder)— Wore special fish-crested helmet 
(murma), the fish being the insignia of the Gaul. 
The helmet was otherwise smooth, to reduce 
chances of ensnarement by the net of a retarius. The 
myrmi Hones generally fought wearing only helmet 
and a loincloth, but were compensated by some 
form of shield; their faction of gladiators were 
sometimes called "little shields". One source states 
that myrmillo was sometimes clad in iron and 
breastplate. He carried a heavy straight sword 
{scutum), or possibly a pike (depending on his 
adversary), and was specially trained in shield 
handling. His normal opponent was either the 
retarius or the Thracian. The myrmillo could be 
especially dangerous, as he had many of the advan- 
tages which were individually unique to other 
gladiators. His helmet and skill with the shield gave 
him significant protection, but the lack of heavy 
armor allowed increased mobility and higher 
endurance. His heavy straight sword was a fear- 
some offensive weapon. 

A number of other types of gladiators were 
notable, and worth mentioning. They include: 

S£S 77/1 #//— Specially trained, professional 
gladiators that contended with wild beasts in the 
"hunts" {venatio/ies). Sometimes, in certain 
periods, criminals condemned to the beasts were 
referred to as bestiarii. They were protected by iron 
plates covering the chest or Tringed shoulder -guards 
similar to those of the retarius. Occasionally full 
armor was worn, identical to that of a heavy 
gladiator: helmet, shield, greaves and sometimes 



coats of mail. They had no weapon capable of keep- 
ing the animal at a distance; the beast was con- 
fronted with a sword at close quarters. 

VENATORES ("Hunters")— The other form of 
animal-fighting gladiators who were "volunteers 
who fought with a noble weapon". !n the days of 
the Republic, barbarians sometimes were forced to 
fight as venatores. The characteristic weapon was a 
hunting spear reinforced by an iron point 
(venabulum). They were clothed in a simple, close- 
fitting tunic and had no protection other than 
leather bands on the arms and legs. One unique and 
special form of combat involved attachment to a 
huge wheel that alternately swung him within an 
animal's grasp and then lifted him high above it! 

VELITE — A light gladiator. No armor or helmet, 
few protective leather straps, small shield (if any). 
Weapon was a spear, sword or dagger. Very fast but 
very vulnerable. High endurance due to lack of 
encumbrances. 

DIMACHAE — Fought with a short sword in each 
hand. 

ESSEDARII — Fought from chariots. 

LA QUEA TORES — Armed with either a lasso or a 
slingshooter. 

ANDABATE — Special form of gladiator matched 
against an identical opponent. Head was imprisoned 
in a full visored helmet which completely blinded 
the andabate. In effect, they fought a deadly game 
of "blind man's bluff". A coal of mail covered the 
entire body. Their special training emphasized 
swordsmanship and strength in finding and striking 
the vulnerable joints of the cuirass. 

The above were ihe chief contestants, but the 
Roman Gladiator Corps had many other minor 
classes of combatants including boxers, archers and 
horsemen. Although the major adversaries were as 
previously discussed, it was not unkown to match 
gladiators against non-standard opponents and/or 
weapons. 

One may find sources containing contradictions 
to the information presented in Ihis article, but the 
material represents the general consensus of the 
best sources available. The games went through 
many changes in the approximately 700 years of 
their existance. 1 hope that this article has provided 
the reader with an interesting overview of the 
subject which will make the game more colorful, 
and perhaps, aid in keeping your face out of the 
sand. Beware of Greeks bearing forked tridents and 
let the games begin! 

THE GAME 

The purpose of this segment of the Gladiator 
Trilogy is to provide an overview of the game itself 
and its individual components. This segment 
should be particularly useful to players new or 
unfamiliar with the system. Certain ambiguous 
areas of the game will be addressed in more detail 
for the benefit of those that have the game or are 
experienced in its play. As was stated in the in- 
troduction of this Trilogy, the game has gained ex- 
treme popularity within my circle of friends in a 
very' short time. A number of reasons contribute to 
this wide acceptance: Shorl game duration, good 
playability/simulation blend, the character role 
playing aspect, efficiency and quality of the various 
components, and the fact thai it is an enjoyable 
spectator game. The following is a brief crilique of 
the various components contained in the game. 

THE BOX 

Yes, I'm reviewing the box! Why not start from 
the exterior and work our way in? — especially with 
a package so deserving of comment. The game is 
boxed, like its brother CIRCUS MAXIMUS 
(chariot racing), in Avalon Hill's new size, generally 
used for "gamette" versions of other subjects. The 



box is an offshoot of the bookshelf format and is 
both convenient/attractive to store and sufficiently 
large enough to comfortably contain the other 
game components. 

The cover art is colorful, action packed and 
quite appealing. Several aspects oT the cover art are 
interesting and, 1 think, deserve comment. The 
gladiator armed with the sword and small shield, 
known as a myrmillo, is left-handed. This is 
unusual, and was especially disturbing to an oppo- 
nent normally trained to combat standard right- 
handed foes. The possibility of a left-handed oppo- 
nent is also one of those small details not over- 
looked in the game itself. His net and trident 
wielding opponent, the retarius also merits some 
comment. The protective helmet and right leg 
greave that he wears were definitely unusual, 
although common in the game. The retarius nor- 
mally was unarmored except for protection on the 
left arm, which he normally used to hold the thrust- 
out trident for defense. The right arm and the rest 
of the body was generally unencumbered to allow 
for mobility and freedom of net actions. Despite his 
unusual, and seemingly misplaced attire, the 
retarius's protective arrangement could be inter- 
preted to mean that he was also left-handed. The 
cover, then, may actually be depicting a most 
unusual and interesting combat! Who says a box is 
not worthy of commentary? 

THE GAMEBOARD 

The approximately 11" x 16" gameboard is 
relatively plain, but attractive. The playing surface 
is endless (no boundaries to the arena), but not 
geomorphic due to the border which completely 
surrounds it. I personally prefer the aesthetics of 
this board rather than a more conventional geomor- 
phic style. If necessary, the gladiators canbeshirted 
back to the center of the playing surface, but lhave 
rarely found this to be the case. The light brown 
board has the game title and a positional advantage 
indicator printed on each end. The playing surface 
is sub-divided into 1 " hexes for movement and 
range determination, and is pleasingly printed in a 
grainy, sand-like texture. 





THE GLADIATORS 

Each of the twelve 1 " wide x 2" high figures 
provided in the game are back-printed with a rear 
view image of the gladiator. When mounted in their 
holding bases, they give a three-dimensional feel to 
play. The unit counters are, in effect, inexpensive 
miniatures. The gladiator counters are divided into 
four main classes: heavy, medium, light, and 
retarius. 

HEAVY GLADIATOR— 
Counters 1, 2, and 3 repre- 
sent heavily armored 
gladiators. I feel that this 
counter is the most striking, 
both in artistic presentation 
and in exuded menace, of 
the four types. Representing 
the Thracian style of 
gladiator, this unit is by far 
the most heavily protected. 
Of the six styles of armor 
available for this gladiator, 
none leave any portion of 





the body totally exposed to harm. In addition, he is 
always given a large shield for protection, except 
when facing a retarius, where ihe rules always call 
for the opponent to have a small shield. The head 
region is totally protected in five out of six cases by 
a massive helmet, which makes him nearly imper- 
vious to damage in this critical area. The 
formidable armor allows the heavy gladiator to 
concentrate nearly all of his efforts (CF — Combat 
Factors) in attacks rather than defensive actions. 
This opponent can be expected to be a very hard 
hitter and often wins in a single blow or two. He is 
rarely dispatched quickly, and usually succumbs to 
multiple attacks/wounds over a period of time. His 
two major weaknesses are, ironically, directly 
related to his massive armor. Due to the weight and 
encumberance of the gear, he is very slow (moving 
only four of the eight movement phases in a turn) 
and vulnerable to endurance loss (lowered CF) in an 
extended conflict. 

MEDIUM GLADIATOR 
—Counters 4, 5 and 6 repre- 
sent medium armored 
gladiators. Probably the 
most colorful of the 
gladiators, in both the game 
and real life, this piece 
represents the secutor/ 
myrmillo/hoptomachus 
gladiator forms. The actual 
piece in the game depicts a 
myrmillo, with his fish- 
crested style of helmet. This 
gladiator is the toughest to 
categorize. The game allows him a wide variety of 
armor types, ranging from relatively poor armor to 
armor nearly equal to that of a heavy. In five of the 
six armor styles, one body area is left totally un- 
protected. Most areas containing some armor are 
generally exposed, in varying degrees, to a well- 
placed blow. Like the heavy, he is always given a 
large shield, except, again, when facing a retarius. 
The allocation of combat factors toward attack and 
defense ismuch tougher for this combatant than the 
previously mentioned heavy gladiator. His armor 
will not give total protection, but excessive use of 
combat factors for defense greatly reduces his 
chances of creating wounds from his attacks. His 
speed is standard, being allowed to move five of the 
eight movement phases in a turn. He has just 
enough speed to allow maneuvering for a positional 
advantage, but not quite enough to stay out of 
trouble from a faster opponent. His endurance is 
good, but will often begin to be a negative factor in 
the latter turns of an extended battle. The strengths 
and weaknesses of this gladiator allows the most 
opportunity for creative and skillful play for the 
experienced player — and for a sudden, fatal wound 
for the novice. 

LIGHT GLADIATOR— 
Counters 7, 8 and 9 portray 
lightly protected gladiators. 
Representing the velite form 
of gladiator, the art work of 
this piece clearly conveys the 
desperate lack of protec- 
tion. Containing very few 
armor options, with the few 
available being relatively 
poor, this unit is by far the 
most vulnerable to wounds. 
He will have anywhere from 
three to five of the five 

body areas totally unprotected in his various armor 
combinations. His shield is almost always a small 
one. A light gladiator is not destined to survive 
long. The final turn-to- Tace move allowed prior to 
combat in the game, exposes the light gladiator to 
terrible wounds even if he has gained a positional 
advantage. Often a positional bonus of combat fac- 





tors gained in an attack are dissipated by the better 
armor of an opponent. Against another light, it is 
always most critical to deliver the first blow. The 
light gladiator's two main advantages are his speed 
and endurance. He is very mobile, being allowed to 
move six of the eight movement phases in a turn. 
His high endurance can give him an edge in combat 
factors over a fatiguing opponent in the latter turns 
of a lengthly engagement— if he survives long 
enough! I would like to offer one slight modifica- 
tion to the rules at this point. If a light gladiator 
were allowed to carry a spear/ trident for a weapon, 
he would become a much more interesting and 
dangerous adversary. He could use the two-hex 
range of the spear, his mobility and high endurance 
to full effect, with less likelihood of wounds in- 
flicted from close combat. If he were skillful, he 
could attain victory from a distance. If he were not, 
sudden death from close quarters! 

RETARIUS GLADIATOR 
—Counters 10. 11, and 12 
represent the special form of 
gladiator presented in the 
Advanced Game rules. The 
retarius counter is probably 
the most unique and in- 
teresting of the four types. 
The armor and weapons in 
the art work on this piece 
appear to be historically 
accurate, but misplaced. 
(See commentary on box 
cover art work.) The game 

classifies the retarius as a medium gladiator and 
allows the armor configuration possibilities as his 
normal opponent. 1 believe that this is an error and 
the reader should reference The Subject portion of 
this trilogy for the standard attire configuration. I 
feel that the entire situation could be most easily 
rectified by reclassifying the retarius as a light 
gladiator, with the armor possibilities of a medium. 

The retarius's major advantages lie in his unique 
weapons. He is armed with a trident, which gives 
him extended range, allowing for attacks outside an 
opponent's reach. The negative aspects of this 
weapon are its likelihood of breaking when it is 
parried, and the fact that it can only be used at half 
combat strength as long as the retarius is in posses- 
sion of something in his other hand. The other 
weapon wielded by this gladiator is the net . Used to 
ensnare or unbalance his opponent (it has a rangeof 
up to three hexes), it constitutes a deadly one — two 
punch when utilized with the trident. The only 
disadvantage of the net is that when used in an un- 
successful attack attempt, it is useless for several 
phases while it is being recovered. As previously 
stated, the main advantage of the retarius lies in his 
weapon capabilities and range. Being classified as a 
medium gladiator, he has no speed or endurance 
advantage over his historical opponents (also 
mediums). The suggested reclassification to light 
gladiator would be more historicaly correct and 
provide him with more clear-cut advantages and 
disa vantages. 

As a final comment on the various gladiators, 
their armor/weapon capabilities and resulting ad- 
vantages or disadvantages in combat may be 
affected by one other variable. The physical 
characteristics of the man himself (the game allows 
up to 36 possible combinations of ratings for train- 
ing, strength, agility, constitution and combat 
capabilities) may alter conventional techniques 
associated with any particular class of gladiator. In 
addition, as the gladiator and/or his opponent have 
wounds inflicted, strategies may have to be quickly 
altered — nothing is forever in the arena! 

UTILITY COUNTERS 

LARGE SHIELD— Definitely useful and worth 
picking up, if sale, whenever possible. When 



destroyed or discarded, it is useless. In either case a 
player should be careful not to back over one (or get 
pushed over one!) to avoid falling. A gladiator who 
is down near an opponent had better hope his will is 
in order. 

SMALL SHIELD — Same comments as that of the 
large shield, except that it should be noted that 
when a small shield takes damage, it begins to 
deteriorate much faster than a large shield. 

SWORD — If you don't have one, it is priceless and 
should be picked up at all costs. If you have a 
weapon, why bother? Just stand on it! 

TRIDENT— Same comments as related to the 
sword. A broken trident may still possibly be used 
at one hex range. If you have a mobile, unarmed 
opponent, you might consider exchanging your 
weapon for the increased range of an undamaged 
trident laying in the sand. 

NET— To pick up or not to pick up, that is the ques- 
tion. If you have a shield and your opponent is still 
armed, I say leave it be. {"Shield strikes" become 
body hits when no shield is present — a net won't 
stop cold steel!) If you are a retarius and still have 
your trident, f would probably not risk attempting 
to pick it up, but would instead attack from two hex 
range at full strength with the trident. In any case, 
don't get one behind you, 

KNEELING GLADIATOR— Rarely used, this 
counter is used to denote a gladiator that is in a 
special defensive (?!) stance, or in the process of 
recovering from a fall. 1 have never seen this 
counter used. It is difficult to imagine a situation 
where it would be useful or safe to voluntarily 
utilize it. In the case of a fallen gladiator, most do 
not survive long enough to reach a kneeling stance! 

THE GAME CHARTS 

At the central core of the system are the game 
charts printed on both sides of the sheet labeled 
"Gladiator Tables". On the front side, the first two 
charts outline the standard actions, special actions, 
and legal combinations of the two, allowed during 
the gladiators' movement phase. These two charts 
act as a quick reference during play, and often 
preclude the need to thumb back through the rule 
booklet. 

The next two charts are used to determine the 
gladiators' armor and physical characteristics prior 
to entering the arena. The players determine what 
class of gladiator they will be representing— heavy, 
medium, or light. The armor tables for each class 
list six possible armor and shield combinations, 
which are determined by a die roll. The physical 
characteristics chart contains 36 possible in- 
dividuals with varying ratings for training, 
strength, agility, constitution and wounds. The 
characteristics are randomly determined by rolling 
two dice and cross referencing the result on the 
matrix of the chart. The information from these 
two charts is next transferred to the "gladiator log 
pad" for easy reference and modification during 
combat. 

Of the four remaining tables on the front of the 
sheet, two deal with gladiator collisions during the 
movement segment of a turn. Table 7.5 is used to 
determine the impact of each gladiator. The impact 
factor is a result of combining a die roll and two or 
more of the Die Roll Modifiers (DRM) listed in the 
chart. The DRMs reflect the effects of various fac- 
tors including speed, position, strength, etc. The 
gladiator with the higher Impact factor is labeled 
the attacker, and play transfers to table 7.52 to 
determine the results of the impact on the loser, or 
defender. The defender will always suffer some 
adverse effects, namely stun factors, which reduce 
the attack and defense capabilities (at least tem- 
porarily) of the combatant. In addition, he must 
check for the possibility of stumble in the next 
phase. 



The final chart printed on this side is 
"8.42 — Attack Sequence Chart". In the game, 
each player may allocate his combat factors to be- 
tween one and five attacks of varying strengths; 
generally, the more attacks allocated, the weaker 
they are. This chart shows the exact sequence of the 
attacks allocated by both gladiators. An attack can 
reduce or negate one or more of the opponent's 
following attacks in a turn. It is, therefore, often 
most important to deliver the first blow. 

The back of the "Gladiator Tables" page con- 
tains the bulk of the combat charts. The three most 
critical tables, and the heart of the game, are con- 
tained on this page. They are the "Combat Results 
Table", "9.1— Wound & Stun Severity Table" and 
"9.4— Critical Hits". 

The "Combat Results Table" is used to deter- 
mine the results of an attack by comparing the force 
of an attack with a three dice roll. The possibilities 
include: Bad miss (attacker off balance and 
vulnerable), miss, shield strike, shield edge strike, 
parry (with weapon), special parry (with weapon 
and shield in combination), and a hit (in varying 
degrees of strength). Depending on the result of the 
blow, various other tables may be consulted. 

If a hit is attained, table "9.1— Wound & Stun 
Severity Table" is consulted. If armor is present, its 
effect (if any) on a three dice wound check roll is 
determined , The wound (i f any) severity is assessed, 
and a final check of possible severe damage is made 
by throwing two dice and checking "9.4— Critical 
Hits Table" (which is full of all sorts of nasty little 
surprises!). The three combat tables mentioned 
above are printed one below the other, with the 
series of throws and checks progressing smoothly 
and naturally. 

If the attack resulted in something other than a 
body hit (see "Combat Results Table" com- 
mentary), then one or more of a series of additional 
tables may be consulted. These tables assess shield 
damage and/or drop, and possible weapon drop 
from parry actions. In addition to these, this side of 
the "Gladiator Tables" sheet contains a few 
miscellaneous tables. The tables are used for: stun 
recovery; throwing weapons/shields; kicking 
dropped weapons/shields; possible stumbling as a 
result of collisions, net attacks or backward move- 
ment over an obstacle; and possible endurance loss 
effects. 

Seven tables are for use by the retarius, who is 
introduced in the Advanced Game. They cover net 
attacks (toss, swing or lay) and their various 
chances for success and possible results. An entire 
article could be written on the retarius and these 
tables alone. Table "18.5— Trident Parry (P*)", 
however, is especially worthy of comment. Any 
time an opponent parries a retarius trident attack 
with weapon and shield, there is a possibility that 
the trident snaps and is dropped. If broken, an ad- 
ditional check is made to determine if the trident 
head is still usable. If it is successful, the trident seg- 
ment may still be used, but at a range of only one 
hex! 

The final table on this side of the sheet is the 
"Missus Chart". This is the "mercy" chart used by 
a gladiator who is down, but still alive (for the time 
being, at least). Basically, the rule of thumb is that 
the more attack versus defensive combat factors 
used by a gladiator, the more chance he has of suc- 
cess. However, it also seems logical that a low 
number of combat factors allocated to a defense 
may be the very reason that the gladiator is using 
this table! 

As a final comment on the tables and charts 
used in the game, I feel that they offer a good 
simulation that is also playable. The only negative 
(if you can call it that) comment that I have con- 
cerning the tables is the reasoning behind the struc- 
ture of some equations. I feel that several could 
have been written in a little more logical format. 



The equations give the correct (and realistic) 
results, but the supportive logic is not always readily 
evident. A player following the instructions as 
written, without question, will always get realistic 
results, and time should not be spent sifting through 
the reasoning. 

THE RULES 

I feel that the sixteen page rule booklet (in- 
cluding a two page duplication of the "Gladiator 
Tables" sheet) is excellent. This is one of the rare 
products that is not only rich in simulation, but ex- 
ceptionally playable as well. The game is played by 
two or more players, each controlling either a single 
gladiator or a team of gladiators. The hexagonal 
divisions on the game board represent a distance ap- 
proximately one yard wide and each turn represents 
approximately 40 seconds (thus the eight phases in a 
turn equal five seconds each). 

Orders for movement and combat are written 
on a gladiator log sheet. The log also is used to 
record the armor and physical characteristics of the 
gladiator, and to note any wounds/stun received 
and their cumulative effects on performance. 
Movement is simultaneously plotted and then ex- 
ecuted. Collisions are resolved and stun recovery at- 
tempts checked. Finally, attacks are executed, net 
attacks being resolved first. Combat resolution is 
basically a two set process. Gladiators in position to 
attack an enemy simultaneously allocate the body 
areas to be attacked/defended, and record the force 
of each attack. Attacks are compared and resolved 
in the sequence indicated in table "8.42 — Attack 
Sequence Chart", and as previously described in 
the discussion on game tables. 

The rules are well laid out, and generally quite 
easily understood. The Basic Game covers normal 
shield/sword type combat between single 
gladiators. The Advanced Game introduces the 
retarius form of gladiator and his unique weapons. 
Also included in the Advanced Game are provisions 
for team combat where multiple opponents are 
simultaneously opposed. Finally, the Campaign 
Game allows a gladiator to gain experience 
(numerous advantages) as he wins contests, but 
may also suffer crippling effects (permanent, 
negative disadvantages) from his injuries. If he 
survives ten battles, he becomes the Emperor's 
Champion and gains his freedom. An alternate 
Campaign Game allows the building of gladiator 
stables, and is won financially by winning paper 
bets using Roman Sesterces (currency). 

Despite my enthusiasm for the rules, I feel that 
there are several areas that need clarification, cor- 
rection or modification. For those with the game, I 
will refer to them by their section number. 

4.0 (Sequence Of Play): Currently reads "... 
place the gladiators in the center of the map area, 
facing each other, and four hexes apart." It should 
read "... place the gladiators in the center of the 
map area, facing each other, with three empty hexes 
between them." 

This simple statement has been the result of 
many arguments. Some place the gladiators with 
four empty hexes between them, and some use three 
empty hexes. If four blank hexes are allowed, a 
gladiator can never reach his opponent (except 
when armed with a trident) in the first movement 
phase. The result is that players nearly always mark 
the first phase as a "non-movement phase". I feel 
that the rewording is realistic, with the gladiators 
just out of reach, and makes the first turn/ phase 
much more challenging. 

4.2 (Turn Plot) / 4.31 (Phase Plot Step) / 6.1 (Turn 
Plot): These three segments constitute the most 
critical ambiguity in the game. The basic question 
is— should all non-movement phases of a turn be 
pre-plotted in the Turn Plot Segment, or are they 
allocated as the individual phases are plotted? 4,2 



10 



DEFENSE MODIFICATIONS 



FOR GLADIATOR 



By Don Greenwood 



When 1 had finished the development chores for 
the AH remake of CIRCUS MAXIMUSand turned 
to its sister publication GLADIATOR, 1 must 
admit that I was less than ecstatic. Although both 
games needed considerable cleaning up, to me there 
was an obvious difference. CIRCUS MAXIMUS 
was a great deal of fun to play and 1 didn't have to 
ask twice to find enough volunteers for an eight 
player test session. 1 almost hated to pronounce the 
game ready for publication for it meant that I no 
longer had an excuse to play i l . The euphoria ended 
when 1 started work on GLADIATOR. Whereas 
CM was simple and exciting, GL was convoluted 
and far too heavily dependent on luck. A complete 
rewrite of the rules made it understandable, but not 
a whole lot more exciting. Oh, it had its moments 
. . . mostly humorous ones where playtcsting 
revealed ludicrous circumstances for some poor 
devil in the arena. We managed to correct most of 
the problems but for me it remained a nongame — 
just something that had to be done so 1 could get on 
with other projects. 

Heresy? Does this guy still work for AH? How 
dare he criticize his own game? Well, just because I 
don't care for it doesn't mean it is a bad game. 
Some of my favorite games are firmly entrenched 
near the bottom of the RBG, and others which I've 
written off as worthless receive rave reviews in the 
hobby press so 1 guess I shouldn't be surprised that 
some people such as Mr. Springsteen arc so 
enamored with it. The short playing time and the at- 
tendant capability to engage in major Campaign 
Games during the course of a single afternoon's 
play are major attractions. Doubtless old Steve 
Reeves fans and others of that ilk predisposed to the 
vicarious thrill of decapitating a foe with a single 
swing of an imaginary sword will find it quite enter- 
taining. 

For me, however, the game remains too luck 
dependent. Even the besi maneuvers can be over- 
come by favorable dice rolls and although that in 
itself is not necessarily bad, the extent to which it 
seems to occur is. The players just don't seem to 
have a strong enough role in the determination of 
their own fate — perhaps because the advantage 
DRMs are diluted by the greater range of a three 
dice CRT. That, coupled with the feeling that the 
game system does not sufficiently reward the com- 
mitment of CFs to defense left me unsatisfied with 
the end result. 

Since publication, however, I have grown in- 
creasingly convinced that the combat system could 
be improved upon by falling back on one of the 
oldest gaming mechanics— the matrix. The 
simplified version below goes a long way towards 
addressing the imbalance of offensive and defen- 
sive CFs in the game and also gives each player a bit 
more control over his own fate without undue com- 
plications to the combat system. 

The game is played exactly as before except that 
each player has the option to select one defense card 
in place of a two CF defense allocation during each 
phase. He makes his selection by recording the 
letter of the defense card selected in the appropriate 
defense block (A in block I , B in block 2, etc) during 
the Combat Factor Allocation (8.3) step. The 
player may still commit other CFs to the defense of 
other body areas normally and he may choose to 

Inot use a defense card at all, but he can never use 
more than one defense card and must have two CFs 



to allocate to the purchase of that defense card as 
well as meeting all other qualifications for use of the 
card. 




The Duck defense can be used only if the 
defender is not currently under the effects of Stun. 
The Duck defense yields an automatic "No Effect" 
result to any attack against the defender's head. In 
addition, the attacker is assumed to be off-balance 
and will be the victim of a +1 DRM to the next at- 
tack made against him in that phase unless he makes 
a subsequent attack before the defender does. 




The Block defense can be used only if the 
defender has a shield. The Block defense yields an 
automatic "S" result to any attack against the 
defender's chest. Checks for shield damage must be 
made normally. 




The Back Step defense can be used only if the 
defender is on his feet and not currently in a 
Stumble mode. The Back Step defense yields an 
automatic "No Effect" result to any attack against 



the defender's groin. However, the defender is 
assumed to be ofr-balance and must add a -I DRM 
to his next attack made during thai phase unless the 
attacker makes a subsequent attack before the 

defender does. 




The Parry defense can be used only if the 
defender has a weapon and has not lost more than 
two CFs from his arms. The Parry defense yields an 
automatic "P" result to any attacks against the 
defender's arms. Checks for weapon drops must be 
made normally. 




The Leap Defense can be used only if the 
defender is on his feet and has not lost more than 
two CFs from his legs and/or endurance. The Leap 
defense yields an automatic "No Effect" result to 
any attack against the defender's legs. 

Inclusion of these defense choices makes the 
guessing portion of the game wherein you try to 
outwit your opponent with the old think-double 
think routine much more interesting. This becomes 
especially true when one of the contestants has been 
injured or lost the ability to play a card. A glaring 
deficiency can be momentarily protected by mass- 
ing CFs to the defense of a critical area, but only at 
the expense of the attack and no one survives in the 
arena for long without attacking. However, with 
these cards you may hold on long enough to gain a 
reprieve and strike a saving blow. 




slates "No actual writing or action is done at this 
time,"; 4.31 states "Even if a gladiator cannot 
move in the current phase, the player should con- 
ceal that fact from his opponent until the next step 
by writing several "XV in that particular phase 
section of Display 15."; section 6,1 states "At the 
start of each turn, each player must decide the par- 
ticular phases of that turn in which he will not move 
and secretly signify such by crossing out the 
relevant phase boxes in Display !5.'\ 

The conflicting statement in 16. 1 should be 
deleted. When this material was changed late in the 
development process we didn't catch this cross 
reference. Players do not have to plot their non- 
movement phases in advance — only be aware that 
they are limited in the number of phases they may 
move. 

6.3 (Standard Actions), Stumble: "A stumbling 
gladiator must check for a falling prone {14.3) 
result. " Th i s ch eck s h ou Id be m ade a//er movement 
notation but prior to movement execution, and 
supersedes any marked movement if a fall results. 

6.4 (Special Actions), Left and Right turns: Any 
number of left and right turns may be executed in a 
movement phase where a turning Special Action is 
legal. (Example: RRR, FQ, LL). NOTE: multiple 
turns are implied by the "Allowed Special Action" 
restriction note for Stumbling on the "Gladiator 
Tables" sheet, which specifies thai only one left or 
right turn is allowed in combination with a stumble. 

7.2 (Movement Collisions) & (Collision Impact 
Factor DRMs): If both gladiators moved, and end 
their movement in the same hex, a collision occurs 

but no modifiers for positional advantage are 
received by either gladiator. (This would not be true 
if one gladiator did not leave his hex and did not 
change his facing.) 

7.53 (Impact Factor): "Check to see if defender 
stumbles (14.1)." This check should be made 
immediately after stun resolution, but the stumble 
results/attacker benefits do not go into effect until 
the next phase, 

12.5 (Throwing Weapon/Shield): This title should 
read (and include), "Throwing Weapon/Shield or 
Abandoning Net (Advanced Game)". 

18.3 (Use of the Trident): "As long as the Rctarius 
has possession of his net, he wields the trident with 
only one hand and thus all such attacks are made at 
half their normal CF (fractions rounded down in 
favor of the defender)." When does this rounding 
down take place? The best bookkeeping method is 
So cut the total number of attack factors in half 
prior to area allocation, and then allocate/resolve 
normally. Additionally, it should be noted that the 
word "attacks" in the statement implies that any or 
all combat factors allocated to defense, are not 
halved. 

21.3 (Experience Points): "A gladiator may 'buy' 
any one of the following bonuses as a permanent 
improvement for an expenditure of the listed 
number of experience points," Each experience 
bonus can be purchased only once . (The only pos- 
sible exception might be "training", but even it 
should be restricted to a maximum of two such 
purchases.) 

In conclusion, despite a few faults, 1 feel that 
GLADIATOR is one of the best games to come 
along in years. It could well become a "classic" in 
wargaming. At $9. 00, it constitutes an exceptional 
value for your dollar. I heartily recommend it to 
both the newcomer to the hobby and the hard-core 
wargamer. I think that both will enjoy many hours 
of fast-paced action with this most challenging 
game. 



THE EXPANSION 

This portion of thearticleis meant to expand the 
simulation by introducing new forms of combat- 
ants along with appropriate rule additions/ 
modifications for their incorporation. As was 
detailed in the historical segment of this trilogy, en- 
tilled "The Subject", wild beasts were extensively 
used in the arena and an integral part of most spec- 
tacles. Since the game did not address that portion 
of the period, this section will concentrate on that 
area of conflict. 

This expansion will introduce some of the major 
animal adversaries that participated in the arena. 
An additional form of gladiator, the venatores 
(discussed in detail earlier), will also be incor- 
porated. The expansion is oriented in two major 
directions. First, a solitaire play version of 
Gladiator vs. Beast, will be introduced. The 
solitaire variant will hopefully provide an enjoyable 
method for players to sharpen their gladiatorial 
skills, Second, it will allow for multi-player (two or 
more) combat , where at least one of t he players con- 
trols the actions of a beast. 

Preface to the variants: Any odd situations 
arising during play should be logically resolved, or 
left to fate by using a friendly roll of the die. 

SOLITAIRE COMBAT- 
GLADIATOR VS. BEAST 

The rules for this variant are identical to those 
of the game except as follows: 

I. "Gladiator Log Pad" Modifiealions 

A. The gladiator will either be a Bestiarii (Heavy 
Gladiator), or a Venatores (Special Light 
Gladiator— see this segment of the trilogy for 
details). 

B. The animal(s) will be selected or determined 
randomly. The animals' characteristics will be 
determined using Table A, and recorded on the new 
"Animal Log Pad", Table B. Note that all animals 
(except the wolf) occupy two hexes. 

II. Game Board Modifications — Various battles 
between gladiators and beasts often occurred 
simultaneously in the arena. In order to help keep 
them separated, and to restrict the movement area 
of the animal, the arena was occasionally par- 
titioned. To reflect this fact, the edges of the play- 
ing surface (outer edge of printed hexes) now 
become a wall. 

III. Play Sequence Modifications 

A. The gladiator (solitaire player) does not mark 
his moves, and always moves first (non-movement 
phases are still allocated). Standard and/or Special 
Action movement limitations are still in efrect. This 
increases playability and generally reflects a beast's 
mobility. 

B. The animal's movement is checked every phase, 
and controlled by a three dice roll; one red die is 
used to determine distance, two white dice are used 
to determine type of movement. Tables C and D arc 
respectively consulted for detailed movement 
instructions. 

IV. Collision Modifications 

A. A collision wiil occur anytime the animal's 
movement path ends in, or crosses a hex occupied 
by a gladiator — even if he also moved. This is a rule 
change for this variant only. 

B. If a collision occurs, resolve normally, except for 
using the additional impact DRMs indicated on 
Table E. 

C. If a gladiator is forced into a wall by "losing" a 
collision, he will lose consciousness and be killed 
(being at the mercy of the beast). 

D. If an animal "collides" with a wall, an actual 
collision does not result. A die is thrown: If the 
result is 1—4, the animal consumes its remaining (if 



11 

any) movement that phase, along the wall. The 
animal will move along the wall in the direction of 
least resistance. If the result is 5—6, the animal 
rebounds away from the wall and consumes its 
remaining (irany) movement on a path angled away 
from the contact point. The animal will swing in the 
direction of least resistance (see Diagram 1V-D, 
below). NOTE: I f there is any question of direction, 
roll the die again: odd = left, even = right. 




DIAGRAM IV-D (WALL CONTACT REBOUND) 

V, Combat Procedure Modifications 

A. The gladiator will allocate his combat factors 
first, recording all attacks normally on the 
"Gladiator Log Pad". Positional advantages and 
attack limitations against animals are determined 
using Table F. 

B. Unlike gladiators, animals will not turn to face 
an attacker (8.12). 

C. The animal will attack when the gladiator is in 
one of its three frontal hexes. The attacks are 
allocated as follows: 

1. Roll one die to determine the number of attacks: 
1 — 2 = one attack, 3 — 4 = two attacks, 5 — 6 = 
three attacks. 

2. Combat Factors are distributed evenly between 
all attacks. Odd CFs are added to the first attack. If 
only one attack is made, all combat factors are 
allocated to it. An animal never has defensive 
allocations. 

3. The location of the attack(s) is determined using 
Table G. 

4. Combat is conducted normally from this point, 
except for the following modifications: 

a. All non-miss (-) results against an animal are 
converted to hits (H). 

b. Parries (P & P*) of an attack by the animal by 
the gladiator forces an Area #4 wound check on the 
animal, as well as a weapon drop check by the 
gladiator, 

c. If the animal receives a wound, use the new 
"Animal Critical Hit Table" (Table— H) to resolve 
any potential additional damage. 

All of the current game rules are in effect, except 
as noted above. It is suggested that the gladiator 
experience/crippling effects, detailed in the Cam- 
paign Game, be incorporated for increased 
challenge. As an additional comment, I would 
recommend using wolves when a player opts to have 
multiple simultaneous animal adversaries. Good 
luck and remember that these opponents don't 
grant "missus". 

MULTIPLAYER COMBAT- 
GLADIATOR VS. BEAST 

All rules for this variant are identical to those in 
the game except as noted below: 

I. "Gladiator Log Pad" Modifications — Same as 
those detailed in previous variant, Section I. A. and 
l.B. (Note "Speed" column in Table A.) 

II. Game Board Modifications— Same as in game 
rules; changes detailed in previous variant (Section 
II) can be incorporated as an option. 

HI. Play Sequence Modifications' — Same as in 
game rules, except animal movement possibilities as 
per Table I. 



12 



one hex 




TABLE— A: ANIMAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Animal 


Cunning* 


Strength 


Agility 


Combat 
Factor 


Wounds 


Constiution 


Speed** 


Tiger 


2 


11 


3 


16 


16 


4 


6 


Lion 


2 


9 


3 


14 


14 


3 


6 


Leopard 


3 


3 


4 


10 


It) 


2 


8 


Bear 


1 


9 


2 


12 


18 


4 


S 


Wolf 


3 


1 


4 


8 


6 


1 


8 



*"Cunning" column corresponds to "Training" category for gladiators. 

**"Speed" column is used in the multiplayer variant only, and refers to the number of phases per turn 
that movement is allowed. All animals have four movement factors per movement phase in multiplayer 
variant. 

AH animals except wolves and erect bears occupy two hexes. 



TABLE— B: ANIMAL LOG PAD 




Type. 



_3. ID tt. 



.4, Move. 



Physical Characteristics 



CUN 


ST 


AG 


CF 


W 


CON 


SP 



Body Area Wounds Record 



1 


2 


3 | 4 


s| • 


1 


» 


" 


,0 


11 


"^ 


n 


'* 


15 


,6 


- 


18 


K 


■i 


-1 


-1 


-1 


-1 


1 


Area 2: Chesl 


1 


2 


ll * 


5| . 


' 


a 


, 


10 


11 


" 


13 


M 


« 


,6 


„ 


18 


K 


-i 


-1 


-t 


-i 


-1 


-1 


-1 


Area 3: 1 


jroin 


1 1 2 


>|4| 5 


■ 


' 


« 


' 


ID 


11 


» 


,3 


» 


in 


H 


n 


IS 


K | 1 


-1 


-t 


-1 


i 


Area 4: Fore Lefts 


1 


: 


,|4 


«!• 


' 


8 


" 


10 


11 


n 


'3 


14 


>■' 


16 


n 


18 


K 


-i 


-I 




-1 


1 


-] 


-1 


1 


Area 5: Hind Legs 


1 


2 


3 ] 4 


5 | 1, 


^ 


8 


» 


10 


11 


» 


,3 


14 


>^ 


.. 


n 


in 


K 


1 


-1 


-1 


-1 


-I 


-1 


-i 



_s= 




o 
m 

3 

a 
a 
© 

EA 




1 .' 

o 
2 
— 










>n 






2 

5 











































Attack Allocations 

2 3 4 5 



4 5 











D 











— I — i — I — I — 

— I — I 1 1 



Turn & Phase Plot Record 



I 


Phase 1 


Phase: 


Phase J 


Pluw 4 


Phase 5 


Phase 6 


Phase 7 


Phase 8 


1. 


















:. 


















3. 


















J. 


















S. 


















(,. 




















TABLE— C: RANDOM ANIMAL SPEED 

Red Die 1 2 3 4 5 6 

Move* 12 3 4 5 Hold 

•Table— D results for "2" & "12" supersede any 
Table— C result. 



TABLE— E: 
GLADIATOR/ANIMAL COLLISION 

7.S COLLISION IMPACT FACTOR DRMs 

DRM Condition 

+ 2 Heavy Gladiator 

+ 1 Medium Gladiator 

+ 2 Gladiator has large shield 

-2 Gladiator has no shield 

+ 2 Per hex the gladiator moved forward this 

phase 
+ 1 Per hex the gladiator sidestepped forward 

this phase 
+ 4 G ladi at or i s rolli ng 
-3 Gladiator is ensnared 
-1 Per hex gladiator moved or sidestepped 

backwards this phase 
-2 Gladiator is kneeling 
-3 Gladiator attempted to recover weapon/ 

shield 
-2 Gladiator is stumbling 
-1 Per stun factor of previously stunned 

gladiator 
+ ST Add Strength modifier of gladiator 
+ AG Add Agility factor of gladiator 
+ ? Add modifier for positional advantage 

(see 8.2) 

+ 4 Animal is a tiger 

+ 3 Animal is a lion or bear 

+ 1 Animal is a leopard 

+ 2 Per each new hex entered, inclusive of 

gladiator's hex (do not count excess 

movement factors that would have 

carried the animal beyond the impact 

hex). 

NOTE: When determining stun effects on animals, 
ignore additional weapon drop & shield drop 
results, but include the prone result, 

TABLE— F: 
GLADIATOR POSITIONAL ADVANTAGES & 
ATTACK LIMITATIONS VS. ANIMALS 
POSTIONAL ADVANTAGES* 





AREA ATTACK LIMITATIONS 

{ALLOWED BODY AREAS)* 



1,2,4 



ALL 



3,5 



1.4 



<W 



MALI 



1,2,4 



ALL 



3,5 



13 



•NOTES: For wolves (single hex animal), treat the 
same as a gladiator. Vertical bears (reared) are a 
special case; see second variant's section (V-C) con- 
cerning combat modifications. 



TABLE— G: 

RANDOM ANIMAL ATTACK LOCATION & 

SEQUENCE 

12 3 4 5 6 

Head Chest Groin Arms Legs (re-Roll) 

•If location has attack already allocated, move to 
next higher numbered body area until empty area is 
found. All attacks moving to area 5 (legs) remain 
there, adding their proportion of the combat 
factors to that area's total attack factor. (Only one 
attack allowed from this area; first allocated deter- 
mines attack sequence.) 



IV, Collision Modifications — -Same as in rules, ex- 
cept for modifications detailed in previous variant, 
Section IV. B.C., and D. 

V, Combat Modifications — Same as rules except 
as follows: 

A. Unlike gladiators, animals will no! turn 10 face 
an attacker (S.]2). 

B. Positional advantages and attack limitations 
against animals are determined using Table F. 

C. IMPORTANT: Bears in the vertical position 
(reared), can attack only areas 1, 2, & 4 of the 
gladiator, but receive an automatic ( + 4) CF posi- 
tional bonus. They are treated like a gladiator for 
positional advantage determination. 

D. All non-miss {-) results against an animal are 
converted to hits (H). 

E. Parries (P & P*) of an attack by the animal by 
the gladiator forces an Area HA wound check on the 
animal as well as a weapons check on the gladiator. 

F. If the animal receives a wound, use the new 
"Animal Critical Hits Table" (Table— H) to 
resolve any potential additional damage. 

G. All animal combat factors must be allocated to 
attack, none may be used for defense. Normal 
attack distribution limitations remain in effect (i.e. 
one attack per area and half combat factors 
maximum in any one attack). 

OPTIONAL GLADIATOR TYPE 

VENA TORES (HUNTER) GLAD1A TOR— Same 
characteristics as a Light except as follows: 

1. No shield. 

2. Armed with spear (treat the same as a trident). 

Asa final commentary concerning potential ex- 
pansion modifications, I would like to say (hat a 
little research and imagination can produce in- 
teresting results. Unusual weapon types, arena 
terrain modifications (rocks, trees, water, pits, 
etc.), and numerous other animal types can be 
documented. For those who would like to really 
make their game a showpiece, a number of com- 
panies manufacture 25mm gladiator and animal 
figures; consult your local hobby dealer. 

I hope that my Gladiator Trilogy has provided 
the reader with some insight into the fascinating 
subject that the game simulates. If it has sparked 
the interest of someone unfamiliar with the game, 
perhaps we will meet in the arena. 

Comments and/or questions should be directed 
to Thomas Springsteen, 5533 South 20th St., 
Lincoln, NE 68512. Those expecting a reply should 
include a stamped, self-ad dressed envelope. 



TABLE— D: RANDOM ANIMAL MOVEMENT 



White Dice 


Result 


Symbol 


Notes 


2 


Back 


B 


Back One 


3 


Whirl Left 


WL 


♦(See Note #1 ) 


4 


Pause 


X 


No Move 


5 


Tight Circle Left 


TCL 


•(See Note #2) 




Circle Left 


CL 


•(See Note ffl) 


7 


Forward 


F 


FWD 


8 


Circle Right 


CR 


•(See Note #3) 


9 


Tight Circle Right 


TCR 


♦(See Note #2) 


10 


Pause 


X 


No Move 


II 


Whirl Right 


WR 


♦(See Note #1) 


12 


Rush 


RS 


♦(See Note #4) 



CRITICAL NOTE: The animal moves per Table — D tin til it directly faces the gladiator (same hex row); 
it then consumes any remaining movement factors moving directly toward the gladiator. 

♦NOTES: 

1. Move will be "WL" (or "WR") x § of moves (i.e. WL, WL, etc.). If the animal is a two hex size 
(non-wolf), it will pivot about its rear hex; a wolf will simply change hexside facing the required number 
of times called for in Table— C. 

2. Move will be "TCL" (or "TCR") x M of moves (i.e. TCL, TCL, etc.). The animal enters the 
appropriate hex directly adjacent to the one immediately in front of it . (The rear of the animal will now 
occupy the hex vacated by the animal front.) 

3. Move will be "CL" {or "CR"), then Forward , repeated until requi red number o f moves is consumed 
(i.e. CL, F, CL, etc) When circling, the animal enters the appropriate hex directly adjacent to the one 
immediately in front. (Reference Note #2.) 

4. After gladiator moves, the animal will charge at a 6 hex rate (superseding any Table — C result). \\ 
will use the most direct path; if two paths are equal, use the one giving the highest positional advantage. 
Any intersection with the gladiator hex results in a collision. 



TABLE— H: ANIMAL CRITICAL HITS* 

(Critical Hit # 2 dice + [each WD lj Table— H) 
Dice Roll 
Area Hit 2-6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 + 



1 Head 


— 1 1 V 


S 


2S 


2x 


3XM 


K 


2 Chest 


— — 1 I 


1 


I 


ST 


2xM 


K 


3 Groin 


- 1 I ST 


2x 


2x 


2xM 


3XM 


K 


4 Forelegs 


— — 1 I 


ST&AG 


ST&AG 


l&AG 


l&LMP 


2xM 


5 Hind Legs 


- — 1 1 


ST 


AG 


LMP 


LMP 


2xM 


•Use definitions 


of gladiator critical hit table results (9.5). 











Action 



TABLE— 1: MULTI-PLAYER ANIMAL MOVEMENT TABLE 
Symbol MFCost Allowed Combinations 



^T 



WiLh F and/or (FL or FR) 

With F and/or (FL Only) «*• 

With F and/or (FR Only) *♦♦ 

None ^^ 

None 

None 

None 

None (Up) 

None (Up & Adv. 1 Hex Left) 

None (Up & Adv. 1 Hex Fwd) BEARS* 

None (Up & Adv. 1 Hex Right) • ONLY 

None (Up & Change Face 1 Hexside) 

None (Down) 



♦♦When bears rise, they occupy only the rear (single) hex; when they dropdown, they reoccupy the hex 
directly in front as well. 

♦♦♦For a "FL" or "FR" move, enter the appropriate hex on either side of the hex immediately in front 
of animal (rear of animal will now occupy hex previously vacated by front of animal). 

fA whirl consumes all movement factors and always consists of a 180" move, pivoting about ihe 
animal's rear legs/hex (unless a collision results at which time movement slops and Table E is 
consulted). 



Forward 


F 


1 Per 


Forward-Left 


FL 


1 Per 


Forward-Right 


FR 


1 Per 


Pause 


X 


All 


Back 


B 


All 


tWhirl Right 


® 


All 


t Whirl Left 


© 


All 


Rear Up 


A 


All 


Rear/Turn /Adv. 


A i 


All 


Rcar/Turn/Adv. 


A 2 


All 


Rear/Turn/ Adv. 


A3 


All 


Rear Up/Avot 


Ap 


All 


Drop Down 




All 


♦Change facing during 


advance. 





14 



THE WISDOM OF THE ARENA 

Assessing Your Chances in Gladiator By Bob Medrow 



Back in ihe old days, before game designers 
discovered that you coutd put more than one die 
into a box, things were a lot simpler. No, this isn't 
going to be a lecture on the subject of the good old 
days; 1 belong to the group who believe that things 
have generally been getting better during most of 
the 20+ years I've been a part of this hobby. But 
"better" frequently brings with it some degree of 
complexity, and so it is with GLADIA TOR. 

To simulate with any degree of faithfulness the 
range of events which occur in man-to-man combat 
requires that many factors be incorporated into the 
game. To have omitted these details would have 
been to rob this game of much of its charm. Surely, 
much of the appeal of the game lies in the fact that 
each time one vicariously enters the arena one does 
so in the person of a fighter whose strengths and 
weaknesses are reflected in a variety of 
characteristics. It is the player's responsibility, 
then, to utilize as best he can these aspects of his 
cardboard persona. This is, after all, a central part 
of what I believe many of us expect to find in a 
wargame: a situation in which our skills and 
abilities will have a significant impact upon how 
things turn out. For many of us, what some have 
called "serious fun" is the name of the game. 

Now, if you want to play any game well, you 
have to know its rules. But beyond that, you must 
learn what the game mechanics will reward and 
what they will punish. Without that knowledge a 
player's actions will lack direction and purpose. 
And that brings me to the basis for my opening 
comment. One of the central aspects or anything 
which claims to be a wargame will be its combat 
system. In the early days of the hobby these systems 
were quite simple, involving as they did just 
attacker /defender strengths and terrain effects. By 
comparison, GLADIATOR'S combat system 
depends upon a number of tables and pages of rules 
and explanations. 

It may appear paradoxical to say it, but it seems 
to me that, at the same time, we know both a great 
deal and very little about the type of combat 
modelled here. Our knowledge comes from many 
sources. Many of the individual actions possible to 
a gladiator are, after all, similar or identical to ones 
which we perform ourselves: we walk, we run, we 
pick things up, we throw things, and so on. With 
regard to specifically violent acts, most of us have at 
least childhood memories to draw upon. Finally, 
via movies and television, all of us have doubtless 
witnessed many scenes involving man-to-man com- 
bat with edged weapons. 

But, I fear, our ignorance exists in connection 
with the details of the business. Do we know what 
specific advantages or disadvantages stem from 
having a strong or a weak gladiator? Clearly, 
stronger is belter, but how much and in what ways? 
Certainly, an A armor helmet protects my head 
better than B7 armor protects my chest, but what, 
practically, does that mean with regard to how 1 
allocate my combat factors (CF) on defense? Even 
more basically, is my heavy gladiator such a tank- 
on-sandals that no CF need be devoted to defense? 

When I began my part in the Avalon Hill 
play testing of GLADIATOR these and similar 
questions arose. The answers which I came up with 
form the basis for this article. The purpose of this 
article is to clarify how the combat system works. 
You'll still have more than enough decision making 
to do, but, hopefully, some uncertainties will at 
least be reduced. 



Most of the numbers in the tables which are at 
the heart of the article represent probabilities. 
Here, as in my earlier articles, they are expressed in 
percentages. Thus, if something will, on the 
average, happen 13 times in 100 tries, its probability 
is expressed as ISWe, 

In the GLADIATOR system a number of fac- 
tors combine to influence the outcome or any given 
attack. The most basic of these is the net attacker 
advantage (NAA), the difference between the CF 
allocated to an attack upon a particular body area 
and theCF assigned to defend that area. Besides the 
NAA, the probability that the defender will drop 
either his sword or his shield depends upon the 
attacker's strength and, in the case of sword loss, 
the arm CF lost by the defender. 

Table I contains the probabilities of those events 
which are dependent only upon the factors just 
mentioned. The NAA values chosen are represen- 
tative of weak, moderate and strong attacks while 
the attacker ST values cover the entire range. It is 
assumed that the defender has lost no arm CF. Two 
facts which influence play should be noted in con- 
nection with these values. Across the entire range o f 
moderate to strong attacks there is about one 
chance in ten that the defender will lose his sword 
when attacked by an unusually strong gladiator. 
Should, for any reason, the defender be without a 
shield, all of the S and S* results on the Combat 
Results Table (CRT) are converted into weapon 
parry results. This leads to a dramatic increase in 
the likelihood of weapon loss due to weak to 
moderate attacks. From these observations one has 
a clear motivation to learn the orders required in 
any attempt to recover a dropped weapon as well as 
what one might do in order to try to prevent a suc- 
cessful recovery. These decisions, if 6.5 is used, will 
need to be made under time pressure. We can't sum- 
mon up good luck any more than we can prevent 
bad luck. But, if you like winning better than los- 
ing, you'd better be prepared to take advantage of 
the former and to make your best shot at surviving 
the latter. 

It "is when a hit is rolled on the CRT that the 
number of factors influencing the results takes off. 
To begin with, the particular type of hit result deter- 
mines the extent, if any, to which the dice roll on 
the Wound and Stun Severity Table will be 
modified. This dice roll is also subject to a modifier 
dependent upon the type of armor worn on the part 
of the body attacked. IT the armor coverage is less 
than total the matter of whether or not the blow 
strikes the armor is also subject to the roll of two 
dice. Should one or more wounds result it is then 
necessary to turn to the Critical Hits Table (CHT). 
Unlike dreadnoughts in JUTLAND, gladiators fall 
victim to the CHT quite frequently. 

When this many factors interact it becomes a 
real challenge to reduce the number of numbers 
generated down to the point at which it becomes 
possible to digest them. My efforts to do this are 



summarized in Table 2. To begin with, I decided to 
simplify things by converting all of those interesting 
Critical Hits results (e.g., a reduction of one in the 
agility rating) into wound effects. As an example, 
the AG result just mentioned was first treated as 
one extra wound. For the types of results reported 
here, a little bit of numerical experimentation con- 
cerning these conversions demonstrated that the 
values obtained were not particularly sensitive to 
decisions of this type, particularly for attacks 
directed against head, chest or groin. This wound 



NAA 



1 



A 
K 
M 
O 
R 

T 
Y 
P 
E 



None 



C5 



C9 



B5 



B7 



B9 



46.5 


45.0 


20.1 


0.12 


1.19 


3.82 


0.2 


3.3 


18.0 


47.0 


48.4 


25.7 


0.10 


1.00 


3.31 


0.2 


2.5 


14.5 




473 


52.1 


31.9 


0.07 


0.78 


2.74 


0.1 


1.7 


10.6 




47.9 


55.2 


37.0 


0.05 


0.60 


2,28 





1.0 


7,4 




48,2 


57.3 


40.3 


0.04 


0.49 


1.98 





0.5 


5.3 








47.4 


51.6 


32.9 


0.09 


0.90 


2.97 


0.2 


2.4 


13,2 




48.3 


58.9 


47.0 


0.05 


0.57 


2,04 


0.1 


1.4 


8.0 




49.0 


64,9 


58.5 


0.03 


0.31 


1,28 





0,6 


3.8 




49.5 


68.9 


66.2 


0.01 


0.13 


0.77 








0.9 




47.5 


52.8 


36.7 


0.09 


0.87 


2.85 


0.2 


2.4 


13.0 




48.5 


61.4 


54,9 


0,05 


0.52 


1.79 


0.1 


1.4 


7.6 




49.3 


68.4 


69.9 


0.02 


0.20 


0.92 





0.6 


3.2 




49.9 


73.1 


79.8 





0.04 


0.34 








0.2 



AS 



A7 



A9 



Table 2. Bask combat results. For each lype of armor and NAA 
value the three numbers are; probability of no cfFcci h average 
number of wound* inflicted, and probability of an ouirighi kill 
resuti. 



r 



NAA 

Attacker St 


-2 


-1 

1 


5 


-2 


3 

1 


5 


-2 


7 

1 


5 


M result 


1,9 


1.9 


1.9 




















shield drop 








0.2 





0.2 


2.5 


0.1 


0.4 


1.0 


sword drop 








0.4 





0.7 


9.5 


0.6 


3.7 


10.6 


S result 


48.1 


48.1 


47.9 


24.1 


23.9 


21.6 


1.8 


1.5 


0.8 



Table I. The probability of various results as a function of NAA and attacker ST. 



15 






equivalent approach is not as easily applied to 
attacks upon the arms or legs because something 
like a severed artery is a nasty result, but it's also 
one which takes some time to prove fatal. However, 
experimentation again indicated a lack of sensitivity 
in the basic results to these decisions. 

The basic results in Table 2 consist of the prob- 
ability of there being absolutely no effect, the 
average number of wounds resulting, and the prob- 
ability of an outright kill result. The "no effect" 
percentage includes the "-" result from the CRT as 
well as the percentage of P and P* results which did 
not result in a dropped weapon and the percentage 
of H type results which failed to wound. In arriving 
at the average number of wounds a number of 
things were simplified. First of all, all results 
yielding ten or more wounds were treated as 
outright kill (K) results. Thus, the possible results, 
after rolling on the CHT, were one through nine 
wounds or a K. Secondly, in finding the average 
number of wounds, all K results were treated as 10 
wound results. The third number reported thus in- 
cludes the probability of all 10 or more wounds 
results plus that of outright K results. 

When boiled down to these three numbers, two 
pleasant observations were possible. Attacker 
strength had only a small effect. Also, and much 
more importantly, the body area attacked proved lo 
have little impact. While the wound/kill results 
were lower for arm and leg attacks, they were only 
slightly lower. Because of these facts the number of 
attack parameters which, practically, one needs to 
consider is reduced. The specific results in Tabic 2 
are for an attacker strength of one and a chest 
attack. 

Thus, Table 2 allows us to see quite clearly the 
overwhelming significance of armor. Enough 
values are given to make it obvious just how 
dramatically the results change as one goes from no. 
armor to full A armor. To consider a specific exam- 
ple, take a look at the column of entries for a NAA 
or 3, For practical purposes, an attack against any 
totally unarmored area has a 45% chance of 
accomplishing absolutely nothing. On the average, 
however, such an attack will produce slightly over 
one wound. There's even a small (3.3%) chance 
thai an outright kill will result. Outfit this area with 
B armor and the numbers change remarkably. The 
chance of accomplishing nothing goes up to 68.9% 
and the average number of wounds falls by almost a 
factor of ten. The chance of an outright kill is 
shown as zero. As with most of the zero values in 
this Table, such an entry means that the probability 
lies between zero and 0.05%; i.e., there's less than 5 
chances in 10,000 tries of this event taking place. 
For this particular case the K probability is actually 
0.027%. [f you'll worry about that, you'll worry 
about anything. 

In play, I've discovered that the Table is largely 
of value from an offensive point of view. Depend- 
ing upon the general level of armor of an opponent, 
the extent to which CF have to be concentrated to 
have much chance of success is clear. So too are the 
relative values of the armor covering each area of an 
opponent's body. These factors combine to in- 
fluence the number of attacks which one can usefully 
make and the choice of where these attacks should 
fall. 

Still, from an offensive point oTview, the nature 
of the rules makes one additional piece of informa- 
tion quite useful. The last sentence in 9.31 tells us 
that the first wound received in any body area 
always causes the gladiator hit to lose one CF. Par- 
ticularly when medium or heavy gladiators are in- 
volved, One is generally well advised to plan on 
following a policy of CF attrition on the enemy. 
When a foe has already picked up a wound or two in 
one area, it is likely that he or she is going to devote 
some CF to defense of that area. Rather than 
continuing to bash away at the same area, consider 



none 
CS 



10 































C7 


2 


1 





C9 


2 


2 


1 


c 


3 


2 


2 


1 





BS 


I 


1 


— 


— 


— 


T B7 


3 


2 


1 


1 


— 


2 





O B9 


4 


4 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


B 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


4 


3 


2 





AS 


I 


1 


— 


— 












A7 


3 


3 


2 


1 


I 


2 


1 


— 


— 


2 





A9 


5 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


2 


— 


5 


i 


A 


6 


6 


6 


S 


5 


6 


5 


4 


2 


6 


5 


4 





TabJe 4. Defensive 


None C5 C7 

CF required to raise the effee 


C9 C B5 

FROM 

ivc armor value. 


B7 


B9 


B 


AS 


A7 


A9 


A 



the possibility of trying for that first wound in a new 
area. Establishing or increasing a CF lead over the 
enemy goes a long way toward eventual victory. 

This, then, brings us to Table 3, which tells you 
how good a chance you have of inflicting at least 
one wound. Because of the importance of this in- 
formation I've included two more NAA values. In 
this Table, zero represents probabilities of less than 
0.5%. This table illustrates a general truth of some 
importance to a question which 1 still find quite 
troublesome: how many attacks should 1 make? If 
you'll read across any one of the lines you'll 
discover that the percentage change from one 
column to the next increases as you move to the 
right. What this means is that each CF added to an 
attack is worth a bit more than was the previous CF. 
This type of result is generally characteristic of the 
operation of the combat system. 



NAA 



1 



none 


3 


15 


30 


50 


74 


C5 


3 


13 


27 


46 


69 


C7 


2 


10 


23 


40 


63 


C9 


2 


9 


20 


36 


57 


C 


2 


7 


18 


34 


54 


BS 


3 


11 


24 


40 


62 


B7 


2 


7 


16 


30 


47 


B9 


1 


4 


10 


21 


36 


B 





1 


6 


15 


28 


AS 


3 


11 


22 


38 


58 


A7 


2 


6 


14 


25 


39 


A9 


1 


3 


7 


14 


25 


A 








2 


7 


15 



A 

R 
M 

o 

K 



Table 3. The probability or a particular attack achieving ai least one 
wound. 

This kind of observation is at least useful in con- 
nection with any consideration of whether one goes 
with one or two big attacks or four or five small 
ones. My present estimate/guess is that against B7 
armor, or better, one is better off with a small 
number of attacks if CF attrition is the aim. 
However, when I'm not sure I frequently fall back 
on what seems to be a pretty obvious choice: one big 
attack followed by two small ones. 

So far, I've been considering the offense. It's 
safe to say that if you play GLAD! A TOR without 
giving due consideration to taking care of yourself 
your opponent is apt to take care of you, and you 
won't like it. Let's look at a specific example to see 
my motivation for the next Table. If you've got a 
medium gladiator and you roll a 3 on the Armor 



Table your chest is unarmored. Hopefully, a look at 
Table 2 is sufficient to persuade you that you'd like 
to avoid the risk involved in facing a 4 or 5 CF 
attack on the area. Obviously, every CF you devote 
to protecting your chest will reduce the severity of 
any attack. The practical question, of course, is 
how much CF is enough. 

One way to approach the solution of this ques- 
tion is to turn back to Table 3. Suppose you decide 
that you'd like to devote enough CF to the defense 
of area 2 so that the chance of getting at least one 
wound is reduced lo no more than what it would be 
if you had your poorest armor (C8) there. If the 
attacker were to hit you with five CF, C8 armor 
would mean that you receive at least one wound 
about 38% (the average of the C7 and C9 entries) of 
the time. Looking along the "none" line in Table 3 
we see that two CF devoted to defense, which would 
reduce the NAA to 3, would reduce the chance of at 
least one wound to 30%. In Tact, one CFon defense 
would probably, on the average, be as good as C8 
armor. If you were to repeat this exercise for an 
attack of either three or five CF, you'd discover that 
one or two CF on defense is still as good as C8 
armor. 

Well, inorder to spare you thetrotible of having 
to work this out in each individual case, I've 
prepared Table 4. It may well be the most useful of 
the bunch. I certainly hope so, because it took 
awhile to prepare. In constructing it 1 look informa- 
tion from Table 3 as well as from a comparable 
table containing average number of wounds data. A 
number of possible attacks were considered, all 
with ihe ultimate aim of establishing a general rela- 
tionship between defensive CF allocation and 
armor worth. 

To illustrate how the Table is read, let's return 
to the question just raised in connection with our 
hypothetical medium gladiator. We want to im- 
prove the defense of his chest area from "none" to 
"C8." So, we read across the bottom of the Table 
to the "none" column, which is the first column. 
Then we read up to the C7 and C9 entries, and 
discover that two defensive CF will give protection 
generally equivalent to C9 armor. Just to make sure 
that you get the idea (these numbers took a long 
time to produce), suppose we see what it would take 
to raise that C groin armor to A7. Again reading 
over and up we get a value of one CF. Going from C 

Continued on Page 29, Column 2 



dice 
roll 


3 4 5 6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


IS 


16 


17 


18 


_ 


TR 


7 7 7 7 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


10 


11 


12 


12 


13 


13 


13 


ST 


-2 -2 -2 -2 


-i 








I 


1 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


5 


AG 
CON 


-3 -3 -2 -2 


-i 


-1 








1 


I 


2 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


112 2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


6 


6 


W 


9 9 9 9 


9 


10 


10 


11 


11 


12 


13 


13 


14 


14 


15 


15 


Tabic*. Roll 


your own characteristics, dice), 



























16 



SQUAD LEADER SURVEY 



By Joe & MikeSuchar 



Last year we proposed to Don Greenwood that a 
survey be conducted to obtain feedback regarding 
the SQUAD LEADER scenarios published to that 
date. It was our hope thai an insert in THE 
GENERAL could be provided for this purpose. 
Don agreed, but the only space available was 
limited to a corner of the insert already planned. 
This was unfortunate because it meant that a reply 
would necessitate either, 1 . cutting out the form and 
mutilating the magazine, 2. photocopying the page 
or 3. submitting a hand copy. This, we suspected, 
would have a negative impact on the number of 
replies. However, we decided to go ahead. 

We had several goals in mind when we proposed 
the survey. Some of them, not necessarily in order 
of importance, are as follows: 

1. Our experience as SL players resulted in 
preferences for certain types of scenarios. We were 
curious as to whether our preferences were purely 
local, or matched the preferences of the general 
population and, if so, to what extent. 

2. As playtesters, with a limited responsibility 
in determining what is or is not published, we fell it 
would be helpful to have some idea of what players 
at large preferred. 



3. As neophyte designers of scenarios, we 
thought it would be helpful to know what the 
market preferred as an aid in our selections of 
scenario settings. 

W'e received 98 responses, of which we were able 
to use 85. The thirteen which we had to reject were 
filled out improperly. We fell that it was not possi- 
ble to "interpret" the intent of the person respond- 
ing, and so couid not use them. 

Let us make clear I hat we are aware of the 
limitations of this survey. First, the sample is quite 
small. Moreover, it is very likely not a random 
selection from the current SQUAD LEADER 
audience. Despite these limitations, we feel the 
survey met the goals we established. It is our hope 
that there will be another survey. We feel that 
another survey, under the right circumstances, 
would produce a significantly larger response. This 
we hope will either confirm or correct the present 
results. 

Since not all SQUAD LEA DER players have all 
of the scenarios available, or have not yet had the 
chance to play them, we divided them into the six 
groups which can be purchased: 1-12 SQUAD 
LEADER, 13-20 CROSS OF IRON, 21-32 
CRESCENDO OF DOOM, 10I-1 10, A-D and E-L 
All of the data is separated into these groups. 




SQUAD LEADER 
SCENARIO CHARTS 



Balance: 



None 



Allied 



Even German 



#1 


8 


34 


32 


11 


#2 


9 


7 


42 


27 


#3 


7 


14 


55 


9 



#4 
#5 



m 


29 


tn 


17 


#8 


20 


m 


is ; 



Rank: None 1 

#1 9 3 

#2 9 4 



15 



#10 
if 11 
#12 



8 11 



12 
7 
>9 

17 
<0 
15 
20 

31 

22 



10 

22 

7 

5 
11 
22 

4 
IS 
28 



32 


11 


42 


27 


55 


9 


43". 20 


S? 


4 


40 


9 


55 


8 


46 


8 


40 


8 


48 


13 


33 


3 


26 


9 



10 11 12 

1 4 7 



16 



10 



#3 


5 


21 


15 


9 


4 


8 


6 


9 


1 


4 


1 


(1 


? 


#4 


11 


4 


3 


7 


15 


7 


5 


6 


2 


10 


7 


5 


3 


#5 


6 


21 


20 


10 


5 


4 


2 


2 


6 


4 


3 


1 


1 


#6 


28 








2 


7 


2 


5 


4 


7 


5 


6 


9 


10 


#7 


17 


6 


8 


8 


4 


7 


6 


6 


12 


4 


4 


1 


(1 


m 


19 


7 


4 


6 


7 


10 


9 


8 


S 


1 


6 





f) 


m 


17 


2 


3 


3 


3 


7 


4 


11 


6 


11 


7 


5 


6 


#10 


20 


2 


2 


4 


10 


4 


9 


6 


7 


6 


7 


7 


1 


#n 


32 





4 


3 


3 


4 


1 


2 


4 


9 


9 


6 


8 



#12 



22 13 



Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 



Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 



For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 



#1 Is 1,7013 
#2 Is 2.26316 
#3 Is 1.9359 
#4 Is 2.13699 
#5 Is 1.76923 
#6 Is 2.03571 
#7 Is 2.04412 
m Is 1.95385 
m Is 1.8 
#10 Is 2.13846 
#11 Is 1.72222 
#12 Is 1.69841 



Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 
Mean 



Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 



For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 



#1 Is 5.63158 
#2 Is 5.52632 
#3 Is 3.8875 
m Is 6.28378 
#5 Is 3.72152 
m Is 8.45614 
#7 Is 5.58824 
#8 Is 5,36364 
#9 Is 7.48529 
#10 Is 6.81539 
#11 Is 8.18868 
#12 Is 5.73016 



There were two pieces of data which were re- 
quested for each scenario. The first of these was a 
ranking of personal preference. Each person 
numbered the scenarios by preference, starting with 
one. If there was no opinion one way or another 
about a particular scenario, the space was left 
blank, and it wasn't counted in our calculations. 
Most people did not specify ranks for all scenarios 
in a group, but only their three or four favorites. 
The number of people who gave each particular 
rank to a scenario is listed. For each scenario we 
average rank. (For the sake of clarity we use the 
word mean and average synonymously, and they 
represent the result of adding together all the 
numbers in a set and dividing by the number or 
items in the set.) This number can be used to com- 
pare the popularity of the different scenarios to 
each other. The lower the average rank number, the 
more popular it is. 

l[ should be noted that since there were different 
numbers of scenarios in each group, the averages 
can't be directly compared from one group to 
another. For example, in the A-D group, the range 
or possible ranks is one through four. An average 
rank of almost four would be terrible. It can be seen 
that Scenario B (Hill 235.2) is clearly the most 
popular of the group with an average rank of 1.97. 
However, in the original SL scenarios the range of 
ranks is one through twelve. A rank of four here 
would be very good. The most popular of the 
original SL scenarios are numbers three and five. 
Their average ranks of 3.88 and 3.72, respectively, 
put them far above the rest. At the other end of the 
spectrum, the least popular scenario is number six, 
with a mean rank of 8.46. 

The second piece of data which was requested 
for each scenario was an evaluation of play-balance 
as either Pro-Allied, about even or Pro-Axis, For 
our calculations, we assigned a Pro-Allied scenario 
a one, an even scenario a two and a Pro-Axis 
scenario a three. We then totaled the numbers of 
one's, two's and three's and divided by the total 
number of responses to get an "average" play- 
balance. This is an indication of how well balanced 
the scenario is between two "average" players ac- 
cording to the perception of the respondent. If the 
number is close to two, it is a fairly close scenario. If 
the number is more or less than two by more than 
about .1, the scenario favors the Axis or Allies to a 
degree. 

As an example, look at the CROSS OF IRON 
group's balance charts. Scenario number 14 has an 
average balance of 2.23, which indicates that it is 
rather heavily Pro-Axis, in the collective opinion of 
Ihe respondents. On the other hand. Scenario 17, 
with an average balance of 1.85, is tilted in the 
Allies' favor. In the middle, there is Scenario 13, 
w'hose average balance is 2.06. This is not exactly 
two, but ii is close enough to indicate that it is well 
balanced. 

To summarize, then, each scenario set has four 
tables associated with it. The first one lists the mean 
rank for each scenario. The second one is a tabula- 
tion of the frequency counts of the rankings. The 
third table is a listing of the mean balance numbers 
for each scenario, and the fourth table is a tabula- 
tion of the frequencies of the different balance 
numbers. In the tabulations, there is a column 
labeled NONE. These totals represent the number 
of responses which gave no number for that 
scenario, either because the respondent had no 
opinion, or hadn't played the scenario. These 
responses were not counted in calculating the mean 
ranks and balances. 



17 



CROSS OF IRON SCENARIO CHARTS 

Rank For Scenario #13 Is 4.07463 Balance For Scenario #13 Is 2.06061 

Rank For Scenario #14 Is 4.1746 Balance For Scenario #14 Is 2.23077 

Rank For Scenario #15 [s 3.2 Balance For Scenario #15 Is 2. 15942 

Rank For Scenario #16 Is 3.65079 Balance For Scenario #16 Is 1.87097 

Rank For Scenario #17 Is 5.9 Balance For Scenario #17 Is 1.85246 

Rank For Scenario #18 Is 4.49153 Balance For Scenario #18 Is 1.94915 

Rank For Scenario #19 Is 4.47541 Balance For Scenario #19 Is 1.88525 

Rank For Scenario #20 Is 3.77778 Balance For Scenario #20 Is 2.07937 

Rank: None 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 



CHARISMA TABLE 

SC# SS/ENG Tanks Dens Forts Niehl Nation Arty Total 



#13 


18 


#14 


22 


#15 


15 . 


#16 


22 


#[7 


25 


#18 


26 


#19 


24 



8 15 



5 12 10 



#20 



22 15 



10 6 

7 12 
14 9 
3 3 

8 12 
10 8 



6 
12 
15 
5 
9 



8 
7 
7 
10 
5 



8 
3 

3 
6 

II 
12 



13 8 



Balance: 



Nil IK' 



Allied 



Even 



5 

3 
2 
22 
3 



German 




CRESCENDO OF DOOM 
SCENARIO CHARTS 



Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 



For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 



#21 Is 

#22 Is 
#23 Is 
#24 Is 
#25 Is 
#26 Is 
#27 Is 
#28 Is 
#29 Is 
#30 Is 
#31 Is 
#32 Is 



5.44068 

5.55556 

5.44643 

4.16667 

8.04348 

7.8 

3.98214 

5.61818 

7.83333 

6.90909 

5.09524 

4.125 



Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 



For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 



#21 Is 


2.33898 


#22 Is 


2.12727 


#23 Is 


2.35714 


#24 Is 


2.25926 


#25 Is 


2.04444 


#26 Is 


2.08696 


#27 Is 


2.05263 


#28 Is 


2.07407 


#29 Is 


2.02439 


#30 Is 2.22727 


#31 Is 


1.92857 


#32 Is 2.1875 



Rank 


: IN one 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 12 


#21 




26 


4 


6 


10 


7 


5 


4 


6 


8 


3 


3 


1 2 


#22 




31 


5 


5 


5 


7 


3 


10 


5 


3 


5 


3 


3 


#23 




29 


9 


3 


3 


6 


S 


8 


4 


5 


3 


4 


2 1 


#24 




31 


13 


6 


6 


7 


6 


3 


5 


4 


2 


1 


1 


#25 




39 





1 


I 


3 


7 


2 


5 


5 


5 


7 


4 6 


#26 




40 





1 


1 


5 


3 


5 


5 


6 


7 


4 


I 7 


#27 




29 


8 


13 


8 


6 


8 


3 


4 


4 








1 1 


#28 




30 


4 


7 


7 


7 


4 


6 


7 


2 


I 


2 


4 4 


#29 




43 


2 


1 


5 


3 





3 


! 


2 


7 


7 


8 3 


#30 




41 


2 


5 


3 


4 


4 


3 


2 


3 


3 


5 


6 4 


#31 




43 


6 


7 


6 


3 


5 


2 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 2 


#32 




37 


13 


8 


6 


2 


3 


3 


6 


3 





2 


2 


Balance: 




None 






Allied 






Even 






German 




#21 






26 






5 






29 






25 




m 
m 






30 






10 




















29 






5 






26 






25 








31 






















"2? 






40 






6 






31 






8 








39 






5 
















#27 

m 






28 
31 






8 






38 






11 



#29 
#30 
#31 
#32 



44 
41 
43 
37 



30 
24 
29 



6 
15 

5 






1 

T 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

a: 

43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 



Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 




R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
M 
R 
R 
M 
M 
M 
F 
F 
F 
B 
F 
B 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
R 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 



SERIES 100 SCENARIO CHARTS 



3 
J 
5 
3 
7 
I 
4 

5 

5 
4 

3 

6 
5 
5 
7 
5 
3 
5 
5 
7 
5 
5 
3 
3 
2 
2 
5 
3 

2 

3 
6 
5 

4 
4 
6 
3 
4 
3 
5 
6 
6 
6 
4 
6 
5 
4 
3 
4 




For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 



#33 Is 

#34 Is 
#35 Is 
#36 Is 
#37 Is 
#38 Is 
#39 Is 
#40 Is 
#41 Is 
#42 Is 



4.37838 

4.5625 

4.37143 

5.35714 

5.16 

5.67857 

4.28571 

4.71429 

4.51724 

4.68686 



Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 
Balance 



For Scenario #33 
For Scenario #34 
For Scenario #35 
For Scenario #36 
For Scenario #37 
For Scenario #38 
For Scenario #39 
For Scenario #40 
For Scenario #41 
For Scenario #42 



Is 2.05405 
Is 1.78125 
Is 2. 1 9444 
Is 2.14286 
Is 2.04 
Is 2.2 
Is 2.10714 
Is 2.03704 
Is 1.7931 
Is 1.97143 



SCENARIO AD & EI CHARTS 



Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 
Rank 



For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 
For Scenario 



#43 Is 
#44 Is 
#45 Is 
#46 Is 
#47 Is 
#48 Is 
#49 Is 
#50 Is 
#51 Is 



2.42857 

1.97297 

2.37143 

2.52778 

2.7619 

3.18182 

3.08696 

2.25 

2.65 



Balance For 
Balance For 
Balance For 
Balance For 
Balance For 
Balance For 
Balance For 
Balance For 
Balance For 



Scenario 
Scenario 
Scenario 
Scenario 
Scenario 
Scenario 
Scenario 
Scenario 
Scenario 



#43 Is 1.94286 
#44 Is 1,72222 
#45 Is 2.08824 
#46 Is 1.66667 
#47 is 2.09524 
#48 Is 1.86364 
#49 Is 2.13043 
#50 Is 2.15 
#51 Is 2.05 



18 



These two ilems formed the base of data with 
which we could work. More sophisticated analysis 
could be performed on the numbers, but we limited 
ourselves to simple averages. From these numbers 
we came up with several conclusions. From the 
various popularity averages it seemed that the more 
popular scenarios were the ones which had a lot of 
armor, large numbers of pieces and elite or heavy 
firepower type pieces such as SS, Engineers or 
Paratroopers. 

To test this hypothesis, we devised a rough 
system of displaying how many of these "popularity 
factors" each scenario had so that we could com- 
pare them to each other with reference to their 
popularity. See the Charisma Table. For each 
scenario there is a point total. A scenario gets one 
point for the presence of SS or Engineer type infan- 
try pieces. This includes any of the elite pieces such 
as American Paratroopers. A scenario gets one 
point for the presence of a moderate armor force, 
or two points if there is a lot of armor or there are 
super-tanks like Tiger VIb's, A scenario gets two 
points for an average density of pieces. If there is a 
small number of pieces or a large map area over 
which they are distributed, it only gets one point, or 
if there is a very high density of pieces, it gets three 
points. A scenario gets one or two points for the 
presence of heavy ordnance, similar to armor. 
These points were added together to get a total for 
each scenario. The totals supplied for the scenarios 
on the published table are merely one of the many 
sets of totals which we considered. We considered 
other factors, and derived different totals with 
them. However, we chose to include only the above 
four factors in the published total. The factors con- 
sidered, but not included in the totals, were the 
presence of fortification type units or mines, 
whether or not it was a night scenario (which 
seemed to reduce its popularity), and which na- 
tionality was opposing the Axis. These factors were 
published so that the reader may explore other 
possibilities. In fact, the reader may choose to add 
other columns of his own. 

When these totals are compared with [he 
average ranks for the corresponding scenarios, they 
seem to bear out the hypothesis that tanks, elite 
pieces, and large unit densities tend to make 
scenarios more popular. For example, take the 
CROSS OF IRON scenarios. According to our 
point system, scenario 20 receives seven points: one 
point because the German engineers constitute elite 
units, two points because of the very large amount 
of armor on both sides, three points because oT the 
sheer number of pieces on both sides, and one point 
for the presence of ordnance. This should mean 
that it is very popular, and indeed it is, with an 
average rank of 3.78. Scenario 17 received only 
three points, and its average rank is correspondingly 
bad, at 5.90. 

It should be stressed that this system of analysis 
is not meant to be a comprehensive evaluation of 
what makes scenarios popular. There are excep- 
tions, and the point totals are only rough indica- 
tions of the actual scenario situations. However, 
for most scenarios, it seems that the higher the total 
of "popular factors", the better the actual 
popularity. 

One other observation is in reference to the 
play-balance averages. It can be seen that most of 
the scenarios are fairly close, although there are a 
few duds (such as Scenario 12). However, while 
most of the scenarios are evenly distributed between 
Pro-Axis and Pro-Allied, all but one of the COD 
scenarios was deemed generally Pro-Axis. There 
are several possible explanations for this apparent 
lack of balance. First, it may be due to inadequate 
design and/or playtesting. Note also that in the ma- 
jority of the COD scenarios the Allies have the 
weaker force and, as a rule, it is easier to make 
mistakes w'ith a stronger force and still recover. 



Consider also that COD was in play for a relatively 
short period of time compared to Si. and CO! when 
this survey was done. With the infusion of so many 
new rules in COD, players may not have had time to 
properly assimilate them. This, we believe, would 
have an adverse effect on the play of the "weaker" 
side. We personally believe the last is the case, and 
that if all the rules are taken advantage of, this im- 
balance should diminish. A future survey might 
clarify the issue. 

A point which we would like to emphasize is that 
these conclusions are not iron-clad truths. They are 
simply possible interpretations of the data. We 
have supplied all of the data we had to work with, 
and anyone can draw their own conclusions from it . 
Our initial temptation was to supply many more of 
our interpretations but we decided to restrain 
ourselves. 

As a final note, the programming for the survey 
analysis was done in BASIC on our TRS-80. All of 
that data is stored on disk, and if a future survey is 
done, we hope to analyze the new data in conjunc- 
tion with the old. •> 

Avalon Hill Philosophy . . . Continued from Pg. 2 

once again making public my stance on the rel- 
atively new Academy of Adventure Gaming Arts 
and Design. 

While at ORIGINS this year I was approached 
by a gamer bearing a petition to have the Charles 
Roberts Awards returned to the gaming public. He 
was a bit non-plussed by my refusal to sign, having 
imagined me as the leader in his crusade against the 
Academy due to my stance in the Vol. 17, No. 6 
Philosophy which announced the formation of the 
Academy. Not long afterwards, Howie Barasch — 
one of the titular heads of the Academy — inquired 
as to why no AH employees were members of that 
same Academy. He wanted to know if we were 
boycotting it. So both sides of the issue were less 
than thrilled with my stance. I really have a knack 
for making people happy. 

Our official stance on the Academy is a form of 
neutrality that would make the Swiss proud. It was 
obvious that a change was needed. When com- 
panies actually distribute ballots with their product 
names already filled in, or actively campaign for 
specific titles, or engage in ballot box stuffing of the 
worst order, things have gotten out of hand. An 
organization with tighter controls W3S needed to 
keep things on the up and up. It is just too bad that 
the organization had to assume a cloak of "elitism" 
to justify its existence. By requiring some form of 
design credit or acknowledged hobby publication 
for membership it has excluded from its ranks the 
majority of those best qualified to pass in judge- 
ment on the year's new releases— the people who 
actually sample and play everything— regardless of 
the manufacturer. 

Let me pause at this point to praise the 
unselfish motives of Howie Barasch and Bill 
Somers in establishing and running the Academy. 
Having done that, now let me berate them for their 
decision to not only limit membership to published 
designers, developers, authors, etc., but to actually 
encourage companies to enroll their entire staffs as 
members. I wonder if those firms even go so far as 
to distribute the ballots to their employees, or 
whether they just have the company comptroller fill 
in the blanks en masse along with a check for the 
group's next year's dues. In my opinion, manufac- 
turers and their employees should be excluded from 
the balloting, not awarded with such a franchise to 
the exclusion of the consumer! 



Among the roughly 240 people who con- 
stituted the Academy's membership in 1981. I 
recognized 60 as being employed by companies 
which had products eligible for nomination for 
those same awards. And I am hardly on a first name 
basis with all the employees of the many com- 
panies which have sprung up in the last few years. 
Doubtless the actual percentage of industry 
employees among the Academy's membership 
was much higher. However, among the names I did 
recognize were virtually every employee of two 
companies whose products did win awards. 
Among those same names were two individuals 
who have freely admitted to me that they haven't 
played a game of any kind in the past ten years! 
Yet, they are qualified to pass judgement on the in- 
dustry's best products while Joe Gamer who 
bought and played dozens of games in the past year 
by a host of manufacturers is not. That's like letting 
a blind woman judge a beauty contest just because 
she happens to be beautiful. Sorry, I just can't help 
but think that somebody has their priorities out of 
place. 

One wonders if the Charleys have not perhaps 
outlived their usefulness. Even the Academy itself 
can't make up its mind whether the award should 
go to the designer or the publisher. Their non- 
stance is that the award goes to the product, and if 
the designer and publisher wish to engage in a 
public tug-of-war over possession of a plaque 
that's their business. They don't want to be 
involved. 

Even after awards have been safely voted upon 
and awarded, the problems aren't over. Commer- 
cialism raises its ugly head and virtually every win- 
ner rushes to proclaim its awards in its consumer 
advertising. AH is no better or worse than anyone 
else in this regard. In fact, our ad copywriter usually 
manages to distort the categories so that it sounds 
as if we won the long since abolished "Best Game 
of the Year" award rather than just a particular 
category. 

I really don't know why Avalon Hill doesn't 
have a single employee in the Academy. I guess 
none of us thought enough of the Awards to part 
with $2.00. As for myself, I'm not hypocritical 
enough to vote for my own products over others 
that I have not sampled. Therein lies my main gripe 
with the Academy. I am not qualified to vote even if 
I thought I could vote for a justly deserving com- 
peting product over my own simply because due to 
lack of time I don't play our competitor's games. If 
they were honest with themselves I'd wager that 
statement would hold true for the bulk of the cur- 
rent membership of the Academy as well. 

Unfortunately, I have no great solution for the 
current state of affairs. If you don't care about the 
integrity of the hobby's awards, then just keep in 
mind who is doing the awarding, and give them as 
much credence as you care to. If, on the other 
hand, you do want to get involved I suggest you join 
the Academy if you can, and lobby for a lessening 
of membership requirements. For only when the 
people who actually play the games are the one's 
deciding what is deserving of the label "Best", will 
the awards be truly meaningful. 

Those wishing to join the Academy or voice 
their opinions pro or con to the current practices of 
that group should write: Awards Academy, c/o Bill 
Somers, P.O. Box 787, Troy. Ml 48099, 

Those who could care less can take heart in the 
realization that I am now stepping down from my 
soapbox for a while. Next time the Philosophy will 
look at the games now being developed by Avalon 
Hill for possible release in 1982. 



-fr 



TACTICAL LEVEL 
LUFTWAFFE 

COMBAT RESOLUTION AT A MORE VIVID SCALE 



19 




By Kenneth Erbey 




When a designer sets out to create a game there 
are several physical factors he must consider. The 
scale of the mapboard and the size of the units are 
the most important of these factors. But the success 
of a game depends morcupon the intangible factors 
— play balance, realism, excitement level, etc. 
Equally important is the "Perspective" of the 
game. By perspective, I mean the viewpoint of the 
players. In a land game for example, the players 
view the game from the standpoint of anything 
from a squad leader to a fanatical goose- stepping 
dictator. The excitement stems from the fact thai 
the players make their decisions during the heat of 
battle. They are tactical commanders fighting for a 
strategic goal. Even in a grand strategic game like 
THIRD REICH, players still enjoy a tactical flair, 
SQUAD LEADER, and its expansion gamettes, is 
one of the most popular games ever produced, 
mostly because it employs all the opportunities for 
the addition of "chrome" thai a game can provide. 
The players are actual participants in the conflict 
and not just 'company clerks'. Not so with LUFT- 
WAFFE. Players view the game from the safety of 
Base Ops and not through the canopy of their 
fighter or gunturret or bomb sights. The Allied 
player simply determines which cities to bomb, and 
once the B-17'sarein the air, has little or no say in 
the outcome. He (tike actual mission planners) 
merely waits to "hear" the outcome of the raid. 

The German player at least has a little say. He 
has the choice of which bomber group to attack, but 
once ihis choice is made he simply puts as many 
fighters in a slack as possible and starts rolling the 
dice. To keep things interesting, the German is 
limited by the fact that he has to occasionally refuel 
his fighters. The results, however, are a very 
methodical and undramaiicgame. The cure for this 
1 believe, is to introduce a sense of ladies to [he 
game by revising both [he mission planning phase 
and the combal results phase. 

As the Tournament and Advanced games are 
simply campaign versions of the Basic game, 
players have the unique ability to set L UFTWAFFE 



aside if there is some interruption or [hey don't have 
ihe immediate lime to finish. This is a great advan- 
tage to players who value more intense realism even 
though it adds to ihe playing time. To these players 
1 offer "Advanced Tactical Level Luftwaffe". 

In LUFTWAFFE, one factor of bombers is suf- 
ficient to destroy a target, when actually some cities 
were larger and more strategically important. 
Mannheim, for instance has a rail center, a muni- 
lions factory, chemical and oil producing planis, as 
well as an aircraft manufacturing center. Such 
targets required a much larger bomb load to effec- 
tively paralyze the city. 

In order 10 reflect this, players must use ihe Ad- 
vanced Level Taclical Target Sheet. Each city is 
listed with a number of boxes equal to the number 
of factors necessary to destroy the target. The boxes 
are also labeled to indicate the amount of factors 
necessary to destroy the individual industries. For 
example, Berlin needs three factors to effectively 
destroy its oil refineries, as well as one factor each 
for the aircrafl manufacturing, munitions and 
bearings factories, for a total of six factors. As ihis 
raises the total number of targets from 99 to 188, 
the players will have lo stage two raids per quarter 
(simply use the Order of Baltle for each quarter 
twice) and raise ihe replacement factors for 
bombers to 236 and for fighters lo 170. The Rail 
Centers have been marked so thai they can be easily 
referred to by both players. 

Tactical Level Combat Resolution 

During ihe combat phase, instead of counting 
the number of factors firing, Ihe players mark Ihe 
contested hex with a blank counter and remove ihe 
air units lo the tactical display. 

1 . The defender (the player who is being attacked 
during this combat phase) places his aircraft on ihe 
Taclical Combal Map according to the following 
procedure: 

First, he places his bombers (if any) in Ihe 
Bomber Tracl on ihe Tactical Map. He must start at 
the front of ihe Tract (closest to ihe Start Line) and 



work his way to the back by placing one bomber per 
hex. If he has more bombers than space available, 
he simply returns the extras lo Iheir space on the 
regular LUFTWAFFE C&me map. 

Second, ihe Defender places his fighters on the 
Fighter Tract, starting with the spaces along ihe 
Player's Start Line. If there are no bombers, the 
player may place his fighters in the Bomber Tract. 

2. The attacker then places his units on ihe Tac- 
tical Combat Map in any way he sees fit behind his 
own Start Line. 

3. Once ihe Players have placed their unils on 
ihe Tactical Combat Map, they then use the follow- - 
ing Sequence of Play: 

A. Attacker Moves 

B. Attacker Fires 

C. Defender Moves 

D. Defender Fires 

Steps "A" through "D" consthute one round of 
Tactical Combal, and after six rounds have been 
completed, the players return any surviving aircraft 
to their space on ihe regular LUFTWAFFE Game 
map. 



Movement 

Each Fighter (Bombers may not move) is allowed 
lo either move one space directly forward, depend- 
ing upon the direction il is facing, or il may change 
ihe direction il is facing uplo three hexsides (180°). 
There can only be one aircraft per hex. The special 
Jet Tract section of the Taclical Combal Map is for 
German Jet aircraft. Only Jets may enter this sec- 
lion of Ihe Taclical Combat Map (although they 
may be fired upon by any aircrafl while in ihe 
Tract). Jets may move two spaces per turn or turn 
up to three hexsides while in the Jet Trad (lo reflect 
Ihe Jet's higher rate oT speed). 

Combat Resolution 

1 . Afler [he phasing player has moved his air- 
craft, he may fire at any enemy aircrafl providing 
[hat the enemy is within ihe attacking aircraft's 



20 



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TAC 

a, 

6. Oa 


TICAL COMBAT DAMAGE TABLE 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 £ £ 3 £ g g 
CITY AA XX® SSSSiS 
AIR BASE AA X X X ® 


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LjJJS 

Em 


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00 
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£3 




vC IN 

x a 










3 


XXX XXXXX® 
XXXX XXXX® 
XX XXXXX® 


2 












2 6 


2 
4 














XXXXX ® 
XX XXXX® 
X XXXX® 


3 3 


3 


2 


2 












1 4 


4 


5 










3 5 












2 





2 5 




XXXX® 
XX XXX® 
XXX X X © 
X XXX® 
XXX ® 
XX XX® 




4 


3 


3 


6 


6 




























2 




3 6 

4 7 


5 


4 4 


4 










3 




1 












6 


4 














X XX® 

XX X ® 

XX® 


5 
6 5 


2 
5 


1 


5 


4 








4 


2 
3 


5 8 
6 






3 
















6 5 

2 6 

8 8 8 


4 

8 


7 

8 


6 

7 
8 


X © 
X X ® 

X ® 


6 


6 6 


5 
6 


5 
6 


3 
4 

6 


2 
3 
6 






8 




4 
6 



Roll two dice far each attack. Find the aircraft-type of the attacking plane listed at the lop. In the column below [tits aircraft type, find [he first number equal lo or greater than the Ht E" Number of the tai gei air- 
craft. Cross Index this number with [he die roll. Art "X" means that one factor of the target aircraft is destroyed. An X means 1*0 factors are destroyed. 
"E" Number Modifications: +2 to the target if attacker has not dropped tanks, -2 to the target if the target has not dropped tanks. 



TARGET Sheet 



Draw a line between each target and its attacker(s) 



TACTICAL LEVEL REPLACEMENT FACTORS 
2.1ft BOMBERS 
170 FIGHTERS 



|r| r r 


r 


O 


o 


o 


A 




R 


R 


R 


1' 


S 






R 


R 


p 


A 


| R| R| P| 0| O 


O 


( 


c 


A 






K 


R 


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K 


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8 


R 


P 






P 




P 




P 




P 


I P | O | 0| O | A 


B 






P 


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P 


PlOlO 


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p 






p 


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1 




p 




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p 




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O 


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P 





o 


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A 








P 




p 





p 


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p 


[ 


s 


A 








P 




1 J 


T 




P 




P 




F 








P 






P 


p 


B 




P 






p 


B 


PlO 


o 


O 




P 




P 




P 












il 



- Braunschweig 

- Gydnia 

- Kassel 

- Mannheim 

- Minister 

- Offenburg 

- Oranienburg 

- Amsterdam 

- Anklam 

- Augsburg 

- Bernburg 

- Berlin 

- Brandenburg 

- Bremen 

- Breslau 

- Budapest 
-Chemnitz 

- Diosgyor 

- Friedrichshaven 
■ Furth 

- Goth a 

- Gyor 

• Halbersladl 

- Hamburg 

- Hannover 

- Karlsruhe 

- Leipzig 

- Magdeburg 

- Marienburg 

- Munich 

- Oschersleben 

- P 02 nan 

- Prague 
Regcnsburg 
Rostock 
Scheinfurt 
Sorau 
Steyr 
Vienna 
Warsaw 
Liegnitz 
Wiener Neustadt 

- Zwickau 



Unit-Quarter 

A-26's 
386 9* 
391- 10* 

A-20's 

409- 6* 

410- 7* 



BIT'S 

Bt- 

305- 

95 
351- 
381- 

99- 

97- 
457- 

34- 



B-25's 

47- 5* 
321- 5* 



B-24's 

33- 
389 
145 
449 
451 
453 
459 
451 
46? 
465 
483 
493 



B-26's 
323- 3 
387 4" 
17 5* 
331- 6" 
3S7- 6' 



Aachen 

Bielefeld 

Cologne 

Darmstadt 

Duren 

Frankfurt 

Ha mm 

Koblenz 

Neunkirchen 

Saarbruckcn 

Sangerhausen 

Stuttgart 

Wiesbaden 

Bohlen 

Bonn 

Bratislava 

Brux 

Dulmen 

Emden 

Erkner 

Gelsenkirchen 

Ingolstadt 

Innsbruck 

Keil 

Linz 

Merscburg 

Mistlebach 

Neumunster 

Osnabruck 

Padcrborn 

Pardubice 

Peenemunde 

Pi 1 sen 

Ruhland 

Salzburg 

Wilhelmshaven 



KEY: 

A = Armaments O 

B = Ball Bearings k 

C = Chemicals? S 

I = Sled T 



R 


R 


R 




R 


R 




R 


R 


c|c 


R 


R 






R 


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R 


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R 


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R 


R 


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B 








I 

I 


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i 


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c 




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6 


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i 







Aircraft Factories 



Oil 

Rail Centers 

Shipping 

Transpori 



-Used only during Advanced Game. Bold 
number following identification is turn unil 
enters the game. 



field of fire. The field of fire for fighters is the hex 
directly in front of the attacker, and the field of fire 
for bombers is any hex within a two-hex range. 
Therefore (because there can be only one aircraft 
per hex) fighters may fire at only one target, while 
bombers may Fire at up to 18 separate targets to 
reflect the use of fifty Caliber machine gun turrets). 
NOTE: Friendly units do not block the 
bomber's field of fire in any way. (See Diagram 1 
for an example of the various fields of fire for 
bombers and fighters.) 




21 





Diagram 2: Rnund One— German Muvtrnent and Cumbat 

The Me 262 st rea fcs ahead iwo spaces hopi ng to bypass the c&corti ng fifth lers T while (he Me 1 09* move one space closer. The Me 1 09s are not 
close enough and the Me 262 Is Tacing the wrong direction to fire this round. 



Diagram & Allied Muvrmeni and Ombai 

The P-47s are in a good position to gel the Erst licks in. The 3 S2nd 
[urns to the left 10 attack the Jet. while the en hers move in closer to 
the Me IQ9s. In order to damage i he Me L09s with l 'E" ratings or 3, 
the P-47smust roll anything but a 4, 5, or 6 with two dice. The 325th* 
36th and 406th were successful in damaging their targets. The 352nd 
taking on the Me 262 with an "3." rating of 6tt rim:-: roll an II t or 12 
in order to inflict damage. His roll of 4 fails. miserabl} 





Dingram 4: Round Two— German Mnvtmeni and Cumbat 

The Me 262 ignores the P-47— he's after the bombers! He once 
again streaks ahead two spaces. The EJGI moves ahead one space, 
while the JG53 turns to the right with the hopes that the EJGI will 
clear a ftote for him. At this lime the five Me 109s in front are all 
engaging an enemy P-47 with "E' H ratings ofJ. The Me I09s need to 
roll a seven or above I o in fl ict damage. The t hree ai rcraf I i n t he center 
arc -successful white the iwo on the outside fail. 



Diagram r. Allied Movement and Combat 

The 352nd cannot chase the German Jet so he 3cts it slip by wiih 
the hopes that the bombers can handle it. He instead turns to face the 
EJGI's Me 109. He misses. In fact the only F-47s who do not roll 
either a 4, 5, or 6 (misses) this turn are the 406th and 36th: both of 
their targets go down in flames. The Me 262 is now within range of 
the 99th B-l", but the 49th fails to roll the required II or 12 against 
the Jet's "E" rating offi* 



Diagram 6: RottSd I%Kf — German Mtivrmml and ( timbiil 

The Me 262 turns one hexside to the left in order to face the 
Bomber group. He is still not within range so he cannot pre. The 
JG53 turns left one hexside to face thc406th P-47. He too is too far 
away to fire. The 102RH moves forward one space, fires at the 36th 
P-47 but rolls a 5 (a miss). The JG 77 misses as well, but the JG5 
shoots down the4th's P-47, and the EJGI damages the 332nd. 





Diagram 7: Allied Mavement and Comfetl 

The 406th I urns left to help the 3 5 2nd t ake on t he E J G 1 , Each of 
them scores a hit sending the EJGI spinning to the ground. The 36th 
rolls a 1 0. da magi ng t he 1 02R H 's Me 1 09 T and t he 32 5 1 h T s d te rol I of 
three just barely shoots down the JG77. Again the 99th fails to roll 
the required 1 1 or 12 to damage the Me 262, 



Diagram S: Round Four— German M.m nn nt end Combat 

The Me 262 moves nest to the 99th "s B- 1 7 with cannon blading. 
Needing toroll anything but a6or 7, the Jeiroll$a9 1 which is enough 
to damage the bomber. The JG5, JG53 and the JG27 all move for- 
ward one space. This proves to be a devastating turn for the 
American fighters with the 36th and 406th both getting shot down. 



Diagram 9; Allied Mou-ment and Combat 

The 125th turns to the left to engage the damaged I02RH. while 
the 352nd turns to the right in anticipation of the JG53 Me 1 09 mov- 
ing into his sights. The Me 262 is now within the range of born the 
99th and the 91st B-l 7 T s. The 91 sr fires and misses (he rolled a 1), but 
the 99th rolls an 11. The Me 262 is damaged. Meanwhile, the 325th 
fires a deadly burst at the 102RH putting him permanently oul of 
act ion . 



22 




Diagram 10: Haunri Five — Ormi-ni Movement and Combat 

The ihrcc Mc 109s move one space forward io close in on Lhc 
bombers. They cannot Fire at any targets, The Me262 continues his 
attack against the 99th and succeeds in downing ihe first bomber. 




Diagram 11: Allied Movement and Combat 

The 325th turns io chase the Me !09s H while the 352nd fires and 
mLSses(heroJleda5jaitheJG53.Thc9]si B-L7 is in the unique posi- 
tion to fire at both the Me 262 and the Me 109 of the JG5, He fires and 
doesn't roll either a 10, ll t or 12 for the Mc 109 {he misses), nor does 
he roll the required 11 or 12 against the Me 262. 




Diagram 12: Hound .Sis — German Movement and Combat 

Realizing lhat this is. the sixth and final round of tactical combat, 
the German player doesn't warn to take any unnecessary chances. 
The Me 262 needs at least two more rounds lo be ahie to fjre at 
another bomber, so in order to prevent the 97th B-17 bomber from 
firing at him, the Me 262 decides to stay put. The JU27 Me 109 also 
remains in the same place to prevent the P-47 of the 325th from 
gettingone last shot, The JG53 on (he other hand, turns to engage the 
352nd h and the JG5 moves in on the 91st. The JG5J is very successful 
in shooting down the 152nd, and the JG5 damages the 9ist. 




I AREA TOP 50 LIST 



Diagram 13: Allied Moverncrtl and C'ombal 

The final round of combat proves to be a very good one for Ihe 
Allies despite Ihe cautious play of the German r The 91st fires at both 
the Me 262 and the JCS's Me 109. The S>7lh can also fire at the JG5. 
Both bombers score hits on the Mc 109 and it goes down in flames. 
The 91st was also lucky enough to roll an H against the already 
damaged Me 262, .Scratch one Jcl. 

The German player returns his iwo surviving Me 109s to the 
regular LUFTWAFFE game map, as does Ihe Allied player with his 
PA1 and boih his damaged and undamaged B-I7"s. Any furlher 
combat situations are now resolved. 



2. After determining if an attacking aircraft 
may fire, the attacking player consults the Tactical 
Combat Damage Table. He then looks down that 
aircraft's column until he finds the first number 
equal to or greater than the " E" rating of the target 
aircraft. (Bombers have an "E" rating of 0.) 

For Example: An Me 109 attacking a B-17 
would look down the Mel09's column until he came 
to the first "E" number equal to or greater than the 
"E" rating of the B-17 (0). In the case of the Me 
109, the first number equal to or greater than is 
two. This number is modified by + 2 if the attacker 
has not dropped his wing tanks, and by -2 if the 
target -aire raft has not dropped his tanks. These 
modifiers are cumulative — if both planes have 
dropped their tanks, or neither of them has, then 
there is no modification. 

3. The attacker then cross-references this 
number with the roll of two die. This will result in 
the amount of damage inflicted by the attacking air- 
craft. An "X" results in lhc damaging of an un- 
damaged aircraft (the counter is flipped over lo the 
damaged side), or it results in the elimination of an 
already damaged aircraft. An @ results in the 
automatic elimination of the target aircraft. There 
is no other disadvantage for a damaged aircraft 
other than the fact that it probably won't survive as 
long as an undamaged aircraft, except that damaged 
bombers have one less bomb factor. 

The game remains basically unchanged. The 
players are given a little dramatic interlude while 
they inflict damage on one another. Six turns is not 
a very long time in which to accomplish much, 
especially if the German has an escort to fight 
through. But once that escort is gone . . . ! ! Players 
will appreciate the abilities of such individual air- 
craft as the P-51 Mustang and the Me 262, instead 
of just watching them being taken off the board in 
order to satisfy the combat results table. It is now 
possible for the German to inflict great damage to 
the bomber group even with escorts still present- 
providing he can slip by them. 

Comments and/or questions should be directed 
to Ken Erbey, P.O. Box 2392, Palmer, AK 99645. 
Those expecting a reply should include a stamped, 
self-addressed envelope. 



ir 



Rank Name 



limes 
On List 



Ruling 



Previous 
Rank 



K. Combs 
D. Burdick 
D. Garbutt 
B. Simgaglio 
P. Siragusa 
L. Kelly 
T. Oleson 
J. Zajicek 
J. Beard 
D. Barker 
F. Freeman 
M. Sincavage 
R, Leach 
F. Preissle 
F, Reese 

B. Remsburg 

C. Olson 

I. leBouef 
P. Ford 

C. Combs 
K. Blanch 
W. Scott 

D, Giordano 
R. Hoffman 
F, Ornstein 
N. Markevich 

Win 

Phelps 

Mu rise 11 

Sebastian 

Greenwood 

Smith 

Miller 

Martin 

B. Downing 

B. Schoose 

N. Cromartie 

R. Zajac 

D. McCarthy 

J. Mueller 

W. Ktiapp 

R. Bowley 

B. Hayden 
T, Barulh 
W. Letzin 
L. Barlow 
R. Kolbrick 

C. Bra un 

B. Salvatore 

D. Tierney 



24 

23 

22 

9 

17 

17 

33 

27 

13 

.31 

17 

13 

26 

21 

4 

7 

7 

12 

4 

2 

26 

20 

4 

10 

7 

16 
2 
5 

19 

19 

24 

I 

10 

17 

13 

1 

9 
4 
10 
3 

18 
IS 
5 
5 
20 
2 
8 
5 
2 
3 



2533XOR 

2177FDL 

2I71EGK 

2086FGH 

2026CFH 

2021VVZ 

20I5UVZ 

20O4GJP 

2003 FFL 

I997GHM 

1981EEF 

1979DE1 

1952HLQ 

I901KLV 

I886FDE 

I859FGN 

I855CEI 

1853HJQ 

1853ECK 

1846SKH 

1822H1N 

1804HGQ 

1802DEG 

I798EGL 

I796GGK 

I782CEF 

1773CEE 

I765DEJ 

1760FDI 

1758FHN 

1756PFI 

174JDDI 

1739GJO 

1731FHJ 

1726EHJ 

I720EGJ 

1719FGO 

I7I9FGH 

17I3DE1 

I708MKY 

170ULR 

170 1 EG I. 

1696HIO 

1693CDF 

I688DF.1 

1687FHN 

I683DEI 

I671GJO 

1670EHK 

1660DEJ 



I 
2 

3 

5 

II 

7 

■: 

9 

13 

12 

14 

15 

8 

18 

17 

24 

19 

20 

21 

22 

25 

23 

27 

28 

31 

29 

30 
32 
33 

34 
35 

36 

37 
26 

38 
39 
40 
46 
42 
43 
44 
45 
47 
48 
40 
41 
49 
50 



MEET THE 50 . . . 

Bruce Downing is 3 1 , married, has a Masters in Com 
puter Science, and quite naturally makes his living as a 

computer programmer/anaiysl in Foxboro, MA. 

Favorite Games 3R 

ARKA Haled Games: TRC. AK, NP, A7. 

AREA V>'-L Record: 16-3-1 '''■: Time PBM: .>:.:-'„ 

Gaming Time/Week: 10 hrs. Play Preference: PBM 

Hobbies: ctiess. computers, hiking 

Pet Peeve: Opponents who take too long to move 

We asked Bruce if he thought electronic or computer 
games would ever infringe on his board gaming lime. His 
response: 

*■ Definitely, unless boardgame designers can handle 
limited intelligence and simultaneous movement in anon 
cumbersome way. The computer can do this easily while 
automatically taking modifiers and other complicated 
rules into effect. Board game design must produce short {2 
hour maximum), enjoyable (short rules), and realistic 
(limited intelligence, simultaneous movement, and step 
reduction) games to meet I his challenge. Of currently 
available games, NAPOLEON is the closest lo these 
requirements, but it's not very close." 

As for what he likes in an opponent, he says: 

"1 look for reliability and competence. My favorite 
opponents agree with me easily on matters of mechanics 
(rules and procedures) while disagreeing wiih me fairly 
sharply on strategy, i especially dislike obsessions with 
luck. Nothing is more boring to me than discussions of 
how statistically likely or unlikely a current position is. I 
prefer to deal as well as I can with current positions, not 
agonizing over pas! performance of the dice." 



23 




Home Before the Snow Falls 

A War and Peace 1812 Scenario 

French: BUI Parsons 

Russian: Chris Vorder Bruegge 

Commentary: Mark G. McLaughlin 




The 18 12 scenario was chosen for a series rep/ay 
because it offers a balanced strategic game of 
maneuver; the French have an almost 2:1 advantage 
over the Russians at the start of the game but have 
only a little lime to cross a great deal of space, the 
army being weakened with each move. The 
Russians can trade space for time (a gambit familiar 
to World War II gamers) but have to do it judi- 
ciously: an abandonment of western Russia has to 
be measured so as not to allow the French player too 
many strategic options. The Russians must seek to 
channel or a! least shadow the French advance or be 
placed in an untenable position and lose the game. 

Chris and Bill often game against each other and 
bolh are strong advocates of the tactical matrix op- 
tion in WAR AND PEACE and other Avaion Hill 
games. Both players have agreed to use the optional 
Imperial Guard rule. The principals deploy for ac- 
tion in Figure 1. The neutral commentary is printed 
in italics. 



French Initial Strategy: I will leave my 
Austrians and Prussians in the rear to protect my 
supply lines. They can only advance so far, as they 
are tied to supply sources at Lublin and Konigsberg, 
respectively. Besides, if I am not winning by 
November they'll all go home so I had better not 
count on having them around. They can catch any 
Cossacks Chris wants to send to harry my supply 
lines. 

1 am going to avoid the Napoleon trap. Let him 
dig in and build up an army at Moscow, I'm not 
going there. Napoleon is going to head for Smolen- 
sk via Minsk, plus threatening Kiev. If things work 
out I can take Kiev, thus eliminating any Russian 
forward base for a counterthrust — he'll have to 
come straight at me from Moscow once 1 take 
Smolensk. This sidestep towards Kiev might pull his 
army south so I can waltz into St. Petersburg. 

The St. Petersburg gambit is very attractive. 1 
will put together an all-French regular army under 
Davout and Mural to move on St. Petersburg; that 
way 1 won't have to worry about the force marching 
failures of the satellite dogettes— they can take the 
heat in the center. Before winter comes in 
November 1 plan to hold Riga, Smolensk, Minsk 
and maybe Kiev; with a bastion like that 1 won't have 
to worry about losing Napoleon or the Allies to 
politics and it will make him come and hit me. 

Russian Initial Strategy: The French have a long 
way to go in only eight turns (May-December). 
From Warsaw it is 21 hexes to Moscow, 14 to 
Smolensk and 13 to Kiev. From Konigsberg it is 
only 14 hexes to St. Petersburg. 

This scenario favors the Russians, so I had 
better win. The victory conditions demand close at- 
tention. It is unnecessary for the French to take 
Moscow, provided they take St. Petersburg. It is, 
however, necessary for them to take Smolensk. 
Distances arc instructive. There are 21 hexes be- 
tween Moscow and Warsaw to be traversed in eight 
turns. It is only 14 hexes from Konigsberg to St. 
Petersburg and the same distance between Warsaw 
and Smolensk. An apparent French strategy would 
be to take and hold Smolensk and then decide on 



Moscow or St. Petersburg (probably the latter). 
The Russian difficulty is that St. Petersburg is dif- 
ficult to reinforce. 

The Russian strengths are the constant rein- 
forcements at Moscow and Kiev, an eventual 
superiority in cavalry (I can replace my cossacks at 
Moscow, he cannot replace his cavalry losses) and 
t he su perior morale on board four. Kiev is really t he 
Russian ace as it threatens French supply lines to 
Smolensk. Leadership quality is about dead-even, 
one of the few scenarios in which this is true. French 
strengths are initial advantages in all arms and the 
offensive choice of direction. 

My strategy, therefore, will be to avoid losing a 
large batllein the first four turns, lengthen his supply 
lines and build reserves at Moscow and Kiev, then 
counterattack. 



On a personal note, neither Bill nor I have 
played this game very often. Bill is, however, the 
better gamer. He usually suffers atrocious luck, 
which may be to my advantage. He believes that he 
will beat me on the tactical matrix. Perhaps so. 



77ie French appear to be deployed for a south or 
south/central attack, bu! some of their troops are 
set back about a hex too far west, giving up some 
movement to the east. He must plan on some flank- 
ing maneuver, but I cannot tell which. 

The French army is divided into three distinct 
army groups (shades of 1941). His initial advantage 
in infantry (89:43) and cavalry (17:8) is not as much 
in evidence on the first two turns, since much of that 
preponderance of force is scattered back in Prussia. 




Figure 1: Opening selup. May IS 12. French army advances on broad from. 

(Key; Blue are French leader counters. While arc French Allied leader counters. Green are Russian leader counters. 




I 




24 



Napoleon himself cannot reach the front for at least 
two turns. Much of the Russian army, however, is 
deployed on the border. 

The three French battle groups are: North 
(Davout) with Yorck and "A", 28 strengthpoints, 
most of whom are French regulars; Center (Neyj 
with Mural, Eugene and "b", 25 mixed strength 
points and South (Poniatowski) with Jerome. "B" 
and "a", 16 points of satellite troops, not a 
Frenchman in the lot. Victor is herding forward the 
mixed bag of troops, as is Napoleon. The corps with 
Bessieres is the real heavy-hitters, the Old Guard. 

The Russian army has deployed in a hedgehog 
around Kovno, with 18 strength points, most of 
whom can support each other. He must be prepar- 
ing to contest the river crossing and make the 
French show their hand. He could have set up 
another hex to the east with some of them if he in- 
tended to run. Grodno (Doctorov) is also being held 
upfront to contest the river, rather than further to 
the east, with seven strength points. Bagration and 
Tormazov are adjacent to each other in the swamps 
with 21 strength points. He hasn't deployed for a 
race, but for a war, 

French May, 1812: Onward. Davout is going to 
start things right with a force march of three extra 
movement points (without a loss, how's that for 
luck) right next to Kovno. The Konigsberg garrison 
will join him as will "A". This should blast a hole. 
Schwarzenberg with his six Austrians and 
Poniatowski and company will go after Bagration 
in the swamps. This is probably a dumb move, as 
I'll be minus one for the swamps, minus one for 
leadership and minus another for morale, but 
they're only dogettes, and if 1 lose Poles they can 
come back at Warsaw. 

I've got so many g-damn troops. Let's shuffle 
them all forward and bring Napoleon up as close as 
he can. For a little historical color I'll detach the 
Guard cavalry to join him. 

Kovno is a wipe out. Rather than be annihilated 
in the field with an automatic Demoralized 3 (he'd 
lose three of his Tour strength points) he is going 
into the fortress. It's still 3; 1 because Davout has 24 
strength points, mostly French. One round, one 
Frenchman bites the dust and the whole Russian 
corps is eliminated. Davout and 15 Frenchmen 
enter the city. 

In the south it's another story. Odds arc 3:2, 
with 22 strength points to 12. 1 choose an envelope 
chit and so did he, but I roll a 5 ! Minus 3 that's only 
a 2, oh boy, screwed. Five strength points, three of 
them Poles, dead for only two Russians. Everybody 
back a hex. Definitely a mistake to attack in the 
swamp. I think 1 will stop all attacks, for the mo- 
ment, south of the marshes, but leave Jerome to 
hold Brest Litovsk with a small force and keep the 
Austrians (what's left of them) back to defend War- 
saw. Everybody else is going to Minsk and Riga. 

Russian May, 1812: What stupidity at Kovno. I 
should have fought a field battle to save my leader 
and one of those four strength points. Oh well, it is 
still too early to determine the French strategy. 
Maybe Bill will bring Napoleon in and roll boxcars 
to kill him. 

Center army is going to run and join up with my 
northern force on the road to Vitebsk. Bagration 
and Tormazov may as well fall back too lest he 
swing south and hit them with everything; they've 
done their job. Constantine and Wittgenstein will 
go pick up the leaderless forces and prepare the 
reserve army. 



French should have counted a little better and 
tried to get a 2:1 at Bagration the was only two 
strengthpoints short) but considering what he roiled 
it wouldn V have helped much. The Russian made a 
minor error at Kovno, but he can afford the loss of 




Figure II: June liirrt. French advance continues with shifl to a possible northern strategy. Riga is overwhelmed and Russian army is i 
precipitous flight 10 ihe ease. 



a zero leader. Both sides have massed their armies 
into two basic forces: the French behind Davout 
and Poniatowski, the Russians around Barclay and 
Bagration. 

French June, 1812: I don't believe it. I rolled a 
"6" on attrition, and my armies are all concen- 
trated. Sixteen factors, nearly 16% of my entire 
army wiped out in one die roil! That's 80,000 men! 
What really hurts is that four of them are cavalry. 
Only three of those 16 are French, at least, but what 
a bad die roll! 

Still, war goes on. Davout is going up to Riga 
and Murat and Eugene are right behind, as are the 
survivors of the Kovno attack force. Jerome is stay- 
ing in Brest and everybody else is forming a nice, 
neat line on the row of hexes that split boards three 
and four. This maximizes my attrition bonus for 
French forces, a minus one in their favor, since 
nobody is totally on board four (Russia). I need a 
breather after that fiasco. 

Jus* one little attack, Davout, Murat and 17 
strength points against Wittgenstein and his six, en- 
trenched, al Riga. One point short of 3:1! 1 skir- 
mish, he bombards, plus one in his Tavor, but 
Davout and the French still make it even up. Rolled 
a natural boxcars, a D3 result! Three Russians 
eliminated and a fourth cut down in the pursuit, for 
only one French infantryman. So much for a 
Russian northern army. 

Russian June, 1812: General winter struck early; 
another French attrition roll like that and this is in 
the bag. Unfortunately Bill's luck came through at 
Riga as Wittgenstein got blown away. French could 
have blitzed me by advancing faster but he wants to 
avoid attrition in Russia for one more turn. No 
sense wasting everybody fighting here. 

Meanwhile, everybody runs. Constantine is off 
to Moscow' to form an army and Benningsen can get 
that lone Kharkov trooper. Vitebsk will be a rally- 
ing point for my northern army, and Bagration and 
Tormazov will form up just above Kiev. Both 
armies can hit Minsk, if the French go for it. St. 
Petersburg is his if he wants it; I'm going to hold 
him before Smolensk. 



As can be seen from Figure II. the Russian is 
running a lot faster than he has to, giving the French 
a clear shot into central Russia. The French are 



moving very safe and slow, I guess that attrition roll 
unnerved him (who wouldn't be unnerved). I'm 
glad we agreed that 1 wouldn 't see their notes on 
plans or play until the game is over— that keeps me 
guessing too. 



French July, 1812: That's better, only one 
strength point lost to attrition. Now we can move 
on. Davout overruns the two infantry strength 
points Wittgenstein abandoned above Riga and 
rolls along the coast, with the rest of the northern 
army group behind him. Napoleon and Ney will 
form up at Y12, Poniatowski and "b" can stroll 
into Minsk. Bessieres and his Guards will reach that 
safe hex row between the boards, no sense losing 
Guards to force marching or attrition. The "0" 
leaders are starting to shuttle up the reserves from 
Germany and Poland. 1 think Jerome can come for- 
ward a little. 

Russian July, 1812: Lucky on attrition again, 
only one strength point lost. I'm still behind him 
overall in strength points (see Tabic 111, July line) 
but he is not concentrated. About a quarter of his 
army is in the north, chasing a general without 
troops, another quarter is back in Poland and the 
rest is in four stacks, none of which are adjacent. 
Time to risk a counterattack. 

Bagration and Barclay mass at Minsk, 30 
strength points (150,000 men!) against 
Poniatowski's 11 satellites. Odds are 2: 1, plus four 
in my favor (leadership and morale, both up, and 
+ I on a tactical skirmish versus his refused flank). 
Three dead satellites, plus a fourth to cavalry pur- 
suit, and 1 lose a Russian. Five oT my cavalry get an 
automatic over a Danish infantry strength point at 
Y13, above the city. 

Unfortunately, I won too soon; he gets away 
before 1 can crush him. 



Bill either made a blunder separating his army 
so widely, out of support of each other, or he has set 
a keen trap, enticing Chris into a "golden door" of- 
fensive at Minsk. An awful lot of Frenchmen (most 
of his regulars) are up in the Baltic; why doesn 'I he 
send some of them to where the action is. Unless he 
misses ail his forced marching, he'll still get into Si. 
Petersburg before the Russian reinforcements 
reach the city in September, in which case they 



25 




figure III: July 1812. Poniatowski easily occupies Minsk only ro be thrown OUI by 150,000 Russians (30. strength points) under Barclay and Bagration, Davoul advances without opposition toward Si. Petersburg. 



appear at the nearest Russian city not in French 
hands, which will be Moscow, since the French took 
Vitebsk. 

Chris sprung a trap of his own, but it worked 
too well, If he hadn 't rolled so well he would have 
had an automatic 4:1, D3 on the second attack (he 
could have had a 3:1 the first time but that isn 't 
necessary, as the table only goes lo 2:1. then skips to 
automatics at 4:1). Unfortunately, Poniatowski got 
away. 



French August, 1812: Attrition isn't too bad: 
four strength points, three of them satellites. I'm 
still ahead in strength points, but the lead is narrow- 
ing. Should I even attack at Minsk? He's given me 
Si. Petersburg. Why not, let's go get him, he's got 
everybody at one spot. 

Davout is still going for Si . Petersburg, but I can 
send some of the supporting troops down toward 
the real war. Unfortunately I don't have another 
general with Davoul so I can't split his corps up, 
and it's a third of all the French Regular infantry on 
the board! 

Jerome and "a" will have to set up my supplies 
and "A" can form a little block below Vilna. 1 can 
put 20 strength points ai Minsk 10 hit Barclay, just 
enough to make him roll a 1:1 against my satellites. 
Napoleon and the single Guard Cavalry will be 
enough to raise it one in my favor (using the Guard 
rule) although it will sacrifice the best unit on the 
board, Bessieres and the Guards are right behind 
for the second wave. 

He withdrew! I pulled an envelope and he got 
away! At least he rolled a four (six on the dice minus 
one for tactics and one Tor my leader/morale 
bonus) so he loses four strength points. Unfor- 
tunately I lose two, one of which is the Guard 
Cavalry, 



Tabic I. 



Initial Forces 



Guard Cavalry 
Regular Cavalry 
Satellite Cavalry 
Allied Cavalry 
Cossack Cavalry 
Total Cavalry 

Guard Infantry 
Regular Infantry 
Satellite Infantry 
Allied Infantry 
Total Infantry 



Analysis of Orders of Battle 



French Russian 




Reinforcements 

Regular Infantry 
Regular Cavalry 
Cossack Cavalry 
Leaders 



French Russian 



34 

2 
3 

3 (one "2", 
two "0") 




"3" Leaders 
"2" Leaders 
"1" Leaders 
"0" Leaders 
Total Leaders 



Maximum Possible Strength Points 

French 

Turn Inf. Cav. 



Replacements 

Satellite Infantry 
Cossack Cavalry 



French Russian 



7* 



'maximum from previously eliminated units. 



Russian 



Leaders 



Inf. 



Cav. Leaders French Advantage 



May (start) 


89 


June 


90 


Julv 


91 


August 


92 


September 


93 


October 


94 


November 


95 


December 


96 



17 
17 
17 
17 

17 
17 
19 
19 




26 




Figure IV 3 August 1812* French array masses near Minsk but Russians withdraw after only one round, declining id fight a decisive battle. Russian cavalry go after French supply line. 



Loss 3-5 


Table II. 

Attrition Table Analysis 

Strength Points in Hex 
6-10 IMS 


16-20 




I 16% 


33% 33% 


33% 




2 - 


33% 33% 
(.16) (1.00) (1.48) 


33% 

(2.00) 


3 — ■ 


16% 


33% 




Number in parentheses is average number of strength points lost (does not take into account nationality modifiers as both Russian and 
French have equal attrition inside Russia — mapboard 4) 

Average Strength Loss for 20 Factors 
4 stacks of 5 = .64 
2 stacks of 10 =2.00 
1 stack of 5 ^^^^ 
and = 1 .64 
1 stack of IS 
1 stack of 20 = 2.00 

Table 111. 

Conduct of the Campaign 

French Player Russian Player 
Turn Forces Attrition Battle Forces Attrition Baltic 


May 107 


— 6 57 


— 


6 


mi i^i 


July 88 


2* 5 49 


1 


4" 


August 79 


|B 




5 


September 74 


2 14 57 


3 


16 


October 64 


w^^maa^mttMrn^m 


concede 




losses 


24 31 


6 


35 


total losses 55 41 


Note: Forces includes ail reinforcements, replacements and losses due to attrition and is calculated at the start of Che Pia 
Phase. 
•Includes 1 strength point lost to Force Marching 
"Includes 2 strength points overrun 


er's Movement 



Russian August, 1812: I can't win. I'm now 
playing for a draw. I would have trouble retaking 
St. Petersburg but I should be able to hold him off 
in the center. I could try for Warsaw, but it's not 
likely to happen. I must keep him out of Smolensk. 

The Kiev army has just arrived, giving me seven 
strength points in a crucial area. I will break up the 
main army, sending half to guard Smolensk, Ihe 
resl to destroy his supply lines and maybe go after 
Warsaw. Bagration and Barclay can go to Smolensk. 
Constantine is just a hex short of joining them, un- 
fortunately. (See Figure IV) Meanwhile my cavalry 
superiority can cut off his rear, taking out a 
Rhinelander at V12 and the Polish cavalry at VI 4. 
That will put his entire army out of supply around 
M insk . The cavalry lo cavalry bat lie works out well, 
seems he put his cavalry into square (there ought to 
be a rule against that) but my skirmish line is 
enough of an advantage. One Polish squadron 
dead, another cut down— so much for his satellite 
cavalry. 



The Russians have split their army? Why? Nike 
the cavalry raid a la Jeb Stuart but the infantry 
army under Tormazov at W14, just west of Minsk is 
out of place. He should try and beat Napoleon with 
everybody, then go after Warsaw. The Russians 
have been shuffling troops well, but they forgot to 
put someone into Smolensk to dig in. Constantine 
unsuccessfully tried force marching, although 
being adjacent to Barclay may still be enough. 

The French are moaning, I guess he's afraid of 
another attrition die doing him in. His troops are a 
little out of place, but if he doesn V roll a high attri- 
tion, I think he might just have the game, 

French September, 1812. I'm going home due to 
poor play. Chris has beat me. Still, let's get it over 
with. Lucked out on attrition, only two dead, and 
they are both satellites. Even out of supply and in 




Figure V; September, 1812, The decisive turn of [he game. The mjin French army attacks Smolensk and west? it from a stubborn almost ■lo-the.-lasl.man defense. t)avoul parades through St. Petersburg as his 
supporting corps march south. Russians form army along road to Moscow and launch offensive from Kiev. 



Russia I made out like a bandit. Chris has to attack 
to win, and if I can take and hold Smolensk 1 can 
play for a draw or perhaps pull out a victory. 
Davout reaches St. Petersburg and the small force 
moving out of Moscow under my old friend 
Wittgenstein is not a threat. Murat is riding for the 
Cossack near Vitebsk, Jerome and "a" will have to 
cover my rear as the reserves shuttle up to Warsaw 
(stili loyally held by my Prussian allies). Mean- 
while, the army goes for Smolensk. 

Jerome takes five infantry to hit two cavalry and 
a cossack at WI2 (he had a second cossack but 
withdrew before com bat, otherwise the stack would 
have had a zero morale, the same as the cossacks). 
He outguessed me, enveloping my attack. 1 roll 
lousy again, a seven becoming a five, and lose a 
Polish infantryman without causing him any losses, 
Schwarzenberg takes a swipe at some Russian 
cavalry, skirmishing while the Russkies refuse, giv- 
ing me a + 1 tactically, I lose an expendable 
Austrian infantryman, he loses a Russian 
cavalryman and retires. 

It's Borodino time. Napoleon's on BB12 with 
all six guards, seven French and 12 satellites: 25 
strength points against Bagration's eleven. A 2:1 
even, no sense wasting the guards. I've got him. I 
skirmish, he bombards, plus one and a lousy die 
roll! Five becomes a six and we each lose two. 

Second round. Throw in the guards. Charge! 
(What else do you do with the Old Guard). He 
refuses, no tactical advantage. Rolled a lousy six. 



but it becomes a seven so I don't lose anything and 
kill a Russian. No victory, but at least the Guard is 
alive. 

Third round. Constantine is in, but it is still 
23:14, a 3:2, but 1 think I'll hoard the guard again. 
I'll hold back and bombard, he holds back too and 
refuses, lousy six on the die again and we each lose 
two infantry. 

Fourth round. Is this still the same battle? Still 
have him 3:2, 1 skirmish, he envelopes, ! roll a lousy- 
five, which is reduced to a four. Two infantrymen 
for nothing! 

It is still 19:12, let's throw the guard back in and 
end this nonsense. A bombard against a refuse, 
that's another pip on the dice. Roll a "6", which 
becomes an "8". I don't believe it. 1 want another 
set of dice. True, two Russians dead and none of my 
guard scratched, but still no victory. 

Round six (even Lee and McClellan only fought 
seven days, do you think I'll break their record). 
Charged right into a line of artillery, bombarding 
me back to the stone age. A dead foot soldier. 

Seventh day of battle. 18: 10 in my favor, all six 
guard, three French and nine satellites still hanging 
in there. I better use guards or it's a satellite army 
for morale purposes, and I can't afford that, 
because if 1 don't take the city now he'll entrench, 
bring up more people, cut my supplies and it's all 
over. The Guard goes in again. 

What do you know! [ bombarded while he fell 
into a square, that's plus 2 and another for the 
Guard and aw S-t, another "6". That goes up to a 



"9" killing two of him for my guards but at least 
getting a Dl on him, partially demoralizing him. Do 
these dice have any numbers above six on them? 

Round eight. Guards charge into a square, but 1 
still have a morale bonus on him, and it is 2:1 (he 
has only 8 to my 17). A Russian dies alone, no 
French casualties. 

The bell sounds for round nine as we both come 
straggling out of our corners. I'm gonna get him. In 
go the Guards, Skirmishing like mad, and he pulls a 
withdrawal chit! Now I get my dice roll. But it's 
only a modified "9". Three of his boys go down, 
another falls to pursuit, and I lose a single guards- 
man. 

1 won that battle on the tactical chits. Sixteen 
strength points cheerily march into the smoldering 
embers of Smolensk, including four of my guards- 
men. 



Russian September, 1812: Bill beat me on the 
chits, despite his bad luck on the dice. Nine French, 
including two Guards died, but it cost me fourteen! 
Only the three infantry of the Russian guard lived. I 
have no central army left. Three more Russians die 
on attrition. An army is forming at Moscow, but it 
isn't enough, i fought it badly, Bill beat me, no 
doubt about it. Question is, now what do I do about 
this stinking mess I got myself into. 

What's left will retreat to FF12, where it will 
merge with Benningsen, Doctorov and Wittgens- 
tein to form an army with newly arrived General 



28 




r'i»ure VI: Oelober, 1812. French 


.trim mass entrenches at Smolensk, with Guard almost 


intact. Davout's French move south from 


St Petersburg 


as reserves, in Poland 


reopen supply line. Russian player concedes. 






Table l\ 


Tactical Draws 


in 1812 Campaign 




Turn 


French Draw 


Russia ii Draw 


Advantage 


French Loss 


Russian Loss 


1 


Envelop 


Envelop 





5 


2 


2 


Skirmish 


Bombard 


+ 1 Russian 


1 


4 


3 


Refuse 


Skirmish 


+ 1 Russian 


4 


1 


3 


Envelop 


Withdraw 


+ 1 French 


2 


4 




Square 


Skirmish 


+ 2 Russian 


2 


1 


5 


Charge 


Envelop 


+ I Russian 


t 







Skirmish 


Refuse 
battle at Smolensk 


+ 1 French 


1 


1 




Skirmish 


Bombard 


+ 1 French 


2 


2 




Charge 


Refuse 








1 




Bombard 


Refuse 


+ 1 French 


2 


2 




Skirmish 


Envelop 


+ 1 Russian 


2 







Bombard 


Refuse 


+ 1 French 





2 




Charge 


Bombard 


+ 1 Russian 


1 







Bombard 


Square 


+ 2 French 


1 


2 




Charge 


Square 


+ 2 Russian 





1 




Skirmish 


Withdraw 





1 


3 




Withdraw 


Charge 


+ 2 Russian 


3 


1 


total: 


17 rounds of tactics 




28 


27 


Rounds of Combat 


French won French Pips French Average Pips (won) 


(total) 






6 


+ 7 


1.17 


.412 






Russian won Russian Pips Russia Average (won) 


(total) 


8 


+ 10 


1.25 


.588 






Drawn 
3 












Times Drawn. % Drawn 








Chits: 


By French 


By Russian Overall 






Charge 


4/. 24 


1/.06 


1/.I5 






Envelop 


2/. 12 


3A18 


5/.15 






Skirmish 


5A29+ 


27.12 


7/.20* 






Bombard 


y .18 


3/.18 


6/.18 






Square 


1/.06 


2/. 12 


3/. 08 






Refuse 


1/.06 


4/. 24* 


5/. 15 






Withdraw 


I/.06 


2/.12 


3/. 08 




* = most 


popular chii 











Kutuzov. It's only 12 strength points, but it's all 
I've got. They arc entrenched as well. 

My cavalry is going to go after Schwarzenburg 
and the French supply lines guarded by French 
satellite leader "a". Barclay is leading the infantry 
in the direction of Poland. 

Barclay and his 1 1 strength points easily over- 
power the Austro-French Satellite force, killing 
three out of four with a charge against a 
withdrawal. 



It looks bad for the Russians. Splitting his army 
hurt him at Smolensk. Bill thinks he rolled poorly, 
but he rolled just the right, ironically, die rolls to 
prolong the battle and destroy the Russians in a 
massive attrition contest. The French lost nine 
strength points in as many turns, or about 45,000 
men out of a total of 125,000 (25 strength points), a 
loss of 36^0 . The Russians lost 14(70, 000 men) out 
of 77 (85, 000) for an average of 1. 55 strength points 
a turn or 82% of their army. The French now have 
the advantage in the center as Mural with three 
cavalry and two infantry is only a few hexes away. 

The Russian thrust towards Poland is still going 
strong, but is not strong enough to reach Warsaw, 
which Bill has firmly entrenched with Prussians and 
Poles. Overall forces stilt favor Bill (See October 
line on Table 111) at 60 French (to which three rein- 
forcements and one replacement will be added in 
October) versus 43 Russians (another six Russians 
will be added however), 

French October, 1812: I think I've got it won. 
He's going nowhere in Poland, and once the Guard 
and Napoleon digs in at Smolensk he'll never oust 
me. Davout is coming south, 1 can just sit still and 
win. 

Still, let's get everybody moving up, it is the last 
turn before winter. A second army forms adjacent 
to the entrenched Napoleon, and next turn Davout 
himself can take command of it while 1 send a 
minion up to lead the French with Davout now 
trudging southward. The cavalry corps that just ar- 
rived at Danzig gives me the perfect counter to 
Chris' cavalry army. 

Russian: No need to fight the battle against the 
cavalry army. 1 concede. 



(agree with Bill's assessment. Only with incred- 
ible luck can the Russians even go for a draw at this 
stage, as winter is no kinder to the Russians than it is 
to the French. The game ends in mid-October play. 
(See figure VI), 

French Summary: The French purposely con- 
solidated, moved cautiously and slowly in order to 
avoid Russian attrition penalties in the first three 
turns. The formation along the U hex row was a 
jumping off point. 1 gave up on my southern 
strategy as the Russians were playing a strong 
defense down there. However, as I closed on an 
undefended St, Petersburg I took heart and con- 
tinued a general easterly and north easterly advance, 

St. Petersburg is in good shape with eight 
French regulars, so even a wild cossack raid is no 
threat. I can hold Smolensk although I am a little 
doubtful depending on attrition and his luck. 

All in all, 1 really think it is difficult to win as the 
French but very easy to get a draw, particularly if 
the Russians do not stoutly defend the Riga ap- 
proach to St. Petersburg. 

Russian Summary: Well, here's a fine kettle of 
fish. His attack on Smolensk succeeded with heavy 
loss to the Russians at marginal cost to the French. 
His supply lines are tenuous at best but all he has to 
do is entrench and send some troops back to 



29 



Table V. 



Smaller 

Force 

Charge 

Envelop 

Skirmish 

Bombard 

Square 

Refuse 

Withdraw 



WAR AND PEACE Tactical Matrix 

Larger Force 

Charge Envelop Skirmish Bombard Square Refuse Withdraw 





4-2 
-1 
-2 

+ 2) 



+ ] 



+ 1 
+ 1 
-1 
_2 

( + 1) 



-2 

-1 


+ 1 
+ 1 

... | 

(0) 




(-2) 

(-1) 

<0) 

(NC) 

(NC) 

(NC) 
i.NC) 



Explanation: Cross reference the option of the larger force with the option of the smaller force and add the 
result to the dice roll used to resolve the battle. If the result is NC the dice are not rolled during the current 
round. If the result is parenthesized, the battle ceases at the end of the current round. 



stabilize his lines of communication. I can't even try 
to retake Smolensk, at least not seriously, until the 
last turn of the game. Meanwhile, I could ravage his 
rear and might accidentally take Warsaw. 

My analysis, however, is that I lost all chance of 
winning on turn one when 1 decided Wittgenstein 
could defend Riga alone and hence St. Petersburg. 
Davoul proved that analysis to be in error. Even so, 
diverting more troops northward would have been 
equally bad as Davout had loads of troops. My 
second strike was the fight at Smolensk. My tactical 
sense was inferior to Bill's; I should have pulled out 
immediately. 

I should have initially deployed more at Kovno 
but 1 was clever by halves, thinking 1 could rein- 
force it, 1 think my swamp deployment was the best 
use for the southern forces. All told, it is very dif- 
ficult to defend St. Petersburg. I disagree with 
Mark's analysis thai Russian forces should retreat 
in a northeasterly direction. They become cannon 
fodder, and fighting early is pure suicide. 



/ agree with both of them that the Russians can 
not win at thisstage. Chris ran too fast, and split his 
army after the bold counterpunch at Minsk, He 
could still pull the army together for a December 
push at Smolensk, but the French have the central 
position and could move to destroy either of the 
Russian armies that attempt to close in on Smolensk. 

I think the Russian became enticed by a Kiev 
strategy, which works great against a Mosco w ad- 
vance by the French but which is weak against a 
northern gambit. 

The French I thought had moved too slow, but it 
turns out he planned it that way. I still like to move 
fast and hit the Russians as early as possible, but the 
Longstreet-tike leapfrog worked very well. I think 
Davout was misused, however, since his presence 
would have been invaluable in the center. One of 
the other leaders, such as Victor or Eugene could 
have taken the troops into the city once it was ob- 
vious it had been abandoned. The combination of 
Napoleon and a t wo point general operating side by 
side to reinforce each other is devastating. 

Napoleon, with the guard, entrenched, is a plus 
two on any Russian counterattack against Smolensk, 
and there are plenty of French to make sure the 
odds are never more than 1:1 against the city. The 
Central position allows Davout to takeover the city 
in November while Napoleon takes a single guard 
and some other forces to hit one of the two ap- 
proaching Russian stacks if need be. 

Luck was definitely against Bill on the dice, as 
he had the terrible disaster on attrition during the 
first turn of attrition rolls. This evened out, 
however. As can be seen from Table HI, only 24 
Frenchmen died from attrition, two thirds of them 
on one turn. By contrast only six Russians were 
attrited, but they operated in fewer, smaller stacks 
most of the game. Combat losses were almost 



equal, 35 Russians to 31 French, In terms of forces, 
the French army, which could have reached a max- 
imum of 115 strength points, lost 55 (47%); the 
Russians who could have reached a maximum of 89 
Strength points lost 41 (46^f»), With losses so equal, 
the French should be able to retain the advantage 
until the end. 



* 



GLADIATOR . . . Continued from Page 15 

to full A, however, would require six defensive CF. 
A "dash" entry means that the particular combina- 
tion is not possible. For example, full C armor is 
already better than AS armor, just as C7 is better 
than B5. 

By the time I'd finished the above Table I decided 
that 1 could go a step further and prepare a simple 
variant to the Armor Tables . To t his end I offer you 
Tabic 5. Here you will find the cost, in sesterces, of 
each type of armor. For example, the A7 helmet 
and C groin armor of the last light gladiator entry 
would cost 1 85 and 1 SO sesterces respectively. As an 
alternative, I propose that each light gladiator be 
provided with 160 sesterces to be spent as he sees fit. 
Many more than six combinations are possible in 
this way. For example, he could buy three pieces of 
C5 armor or blow it all on a C9 helmet. For medium 
and heavy gladiators the amounts are 800 and 1000 
sesterces, respectively. 

Armor 

Coverage 5 6 7 8 9 F 



a 


I C 50 


80 


105 


130 


150 


180 


r 


y IS 80 


125 


165 


205 


235 


285 


m 


p A 85 


140 


185 


225 


265 


320 


(! 


e 












r 

I al> 


e 5. Armor cost. 


per bod 


t area , i 


i sesterces. 







If you're curious, the costs were arrived at by 
calculating the ratio of the difference between the 
average number of wounds with a particular armor 
type and the number for no wounds to the dif- 
ference between wound results for C5 and no 
armor. In lighi of the amount mentioned in 22.2 in 
the Campaign Game, C5 armor was then priced at 
50 sesterces. 

While I was in the variant business 1 decided to 
include an alternative to the Physical 
Characteristics Chart. If you'd like to give this one 
a try, roll three dice for each of the five 
characteristics and consult Table 6. As an example, 
rolls of 13, 10, 9, 12 and 8 would give you a 
gladiator with a TR of 1 1, an ST of 1, an AG of 0, a 
CON of 4 and a W of 10. The probabilities in this 
Table are quite close to those of the original chart. 
The improvement is that this Table contains 18,816 
possible combinations. 

Good luck, and watch out for left-handed 
gladiators. 





SO THAT'S WHAT 




YOU'VE BEEN PLAYING 


Tides Listed: 121 




Total Responses: 461 








Rank 


Times 










Last 


On 


Freq, 


Rank: 


Title 


Pub 


Time 


List 


Ratio 


I. 


Squad Leader 


AH 


1 


5 


6.8 


2. 


Air Force 


AH 


— 


1 


4.8 


3. 


TRC 


All 


.1 


5 


4.0 


4. 


viii' 


All 


'.i 


5 


3.7 


5. 


Third Reich 


AH 


2 


5 


3.2 


6. 


War At Sea 


AH 


13 


5 


2.3 


7. 


D&D 


TSR 


7 


5 


:.2 


8. 


COl 


■\n 


6 


5 


2.2 


9. 


CM 


AH 


17 


4 


2.2 


10. 


Panzerblii? 


AH 


19 


5 


1.8 


11. 


WS&IM 


■Ml 


15 


5 


1.8 


12. 


COD 


All 


4 


5 


1.8 


13. 


FE 


AH 


10 


5 


1.8 


14. 


Midway 


AH 


16 




1.7 


15. 


Kingmaker 


AH 


20 


2 


1.7 


16. 


Guns of August 


AH 


5 


2 


1.3 


17, 


Afrika Korps 


AH 


12 


5 


1.2 


IE. 


Submarine 


AH 


— 


1 


I.I 


19. 


Magic Realm 


AH 


11 


2 


1.2 


20. 


Stalingrad 


AH 


IS 


5 


1.0 


The intluence of David Botiger 


S lead article in 


Vol. 18, 


No. 2 


s clearly evident as 


AIR FORCE soars frorr 


off the 


chart all the way up to second place 


. The other new entrant 


to the 


Top 20 is SUBMARINE. 


Making way 


for the 


newcomers were two 


Tour-time winners; PANZER 


LEADER and WAR & PEACE were the 


casualties. The 


bigges 


loser however was 


GUNS OF AUGUST which fell 


II places to 16th. The late 


-arriving 


October issue featuring 


the same game will probably resurrect this 


title in 


he next 


survey 













RICHTHOFENS 
MANEUVER CARDS! 




* 



Vol. 14, No. 4 of the GENERAL printed a 
variant for RICHTHOFENS WAR which 

featured the use of a deck of 27 maneuver cards to 
augment the mechanical movement system and 
add a degree of uncertainty and excitment to the 
game. Nut just a random luck element, use of the 
maneuver cards is dependent upon such factors as 
turning ability, attack position, and pilot skill. 
Using the maneuver cards one can more vividly 
execute ihe classic maneuvers of the day; Barret 
Roll, Falling Leaf. Flat Spin, immelmann. Loop, 
Nose Dive. Side-Slip, fight Circle, and Vertical 
Spin in an attempt (not always successful) to get 
on the enemy's tail, rather than just trade shots. 
This 27 card deck is professionally illustrated and 
printed and available from Avalon Hill with 
instruction .sheet for $4, 00 plus usual postage and 
handling charges. Maryland residents please add 
5Cf sales lax. 




Leader 



WIRE 



By Jon Mishcon 



Antipersonnel obstacles have existed for cen- 
turies: roman forts were ringed by pits containing 
sharpened stakes. The moat/ditch of the Middle 
Ages readily comes to mind. In forested Europe, 
fort approaches were blocked with interlocking fell- 
ed trees. Perhaps the interlocking treetops pointing 
toward the enemy would be shorn of leaves and 
their branches sharpened (thus forming abatis). 
Early obstacles were designed to break up the cohe- 
sion of attacking waves. 

As combat has evolved the mechanisms for 
achieving this disruption have changed but the prin- 
ciples of disrupting attacking formations remains 
unchanged. Ditches may make effective antitank 
obstacles but provide fire cover for attacking infan- 
try. Sharpened interwoven tree branches may deter 
infantry, but abatis are difficult to construct, 
harder to conceal, dependent on local forestry, and 
if left in position for any length of time, vulnerable 
to fire. The inherent mobility and dispersion of 
Twentieth Century forces imposes new re- 
quirements on antipersonnel obstacles. 

In the mid-Nineteenth Century, American 
farmers of the Midwest faced a related problem. On 
the Great Plains traditional fence material was 
scarce. Open range herds were all but impossible to 
purebreed and subject to loss by straying, A cheap, 
durable, and easily transported fence was required 
that would withstand the meanderings of ill- 
tempered longhorns — something was needed that 
would limit the inherent mobility and dispersion of 
the herds. Thus was born the barbed wire fence. 
Armed forces were not slow to see barbed wire's 
potential. Certainly by the Russo-Japanese War, 
garlands of wire had begun to appear on the battle- 
field. 



Barbed wire comes in a variety of military 
forms. High-wire is a series of posts usually two to 
four feel in height. Posts are arrayed seven to ten 
feet apart with the obstacle being four or more posts 
deep and as wide as required. Wire is then strung in 
single strands from post to post with as many as six 
strands per post. Obviously, High-wire is durable 
but easily spotted, time consuming to em place or 
remove, and easily swept aside by tracked AFVs, 
Double apron wire is another form of High-wire 
where the wire is spread like a tent over a series of 
central supports. It still has most of the advantages 
and disadvantages of regular High-wire. 

Low-wire or "snares" is a single strand of wire 
looped from any convenient branch or rock. If no 
outcropping presents itself, the wire may be nailed 
into the ground. Less than one foot off the ground 
it is easily overstepped but does prevent real dif- 
ficulties for a force trying to deploy under fire. 
Naturally, Low-wire is easily emplaced and can be 
almost invisible (especially to aerial recon) but is 
less of an impediment than High-wire and as easily 
removed by AFVs. 

Concertina is a multistranded roll of barbed 
wire designed to travel as a compressed coil which is 
then expanded accordian-like lo cover additional 
frontage. Three or four feet in height, it is com- 
parable as an obstacle to High-wire and much more 
easily emplaced. In terms of visibility, concertina is 
midway between High and Low-wire. Removal by 
AFVs is still easy. 

The Cheval-dc-frise, or knife rest, is wire 
prestrungon a framework of wood or steel. Usually 
the framework is at least three feet high and the unit 
as a whole can be loaded upon a vehicle. Emplace- 
ment is simply a matter of unloading the units and 
nailing the framework into terrain adjacent toother 
knife rest units. Though quite visible the Chcval-de- 



frise has all the impediment of High-wire with the 
emplacement ease of Low-wire. Further the 
framework can be made to resist removal by tracked 
vehicles. Were it not for the transport space re- 
quired it would approach the ideal for wire 
obstacles. 

Finally the old abatis with its branches pointing 
towards the enemy can si ill be found and made 
stronger (permitting the sappers to forego branch 
sharpening) by stringing single strand wire through 
its boughs. 

To date, the Squad Leader System treats all 
forms of antipersonnel obstacles with one set of 
rules. Lei's review them. 

13.4— Broken units may not rout into wire (pg. 

104). 

42.1— Hidden Initial Placement is in woods, 

53.2— Wire in bunker hex prevents units from ad- 
vancing into the bunker from an adjacent hex. 

53,2 — Wire may be placed in any non-building hex. 

53.3 — No normal movement onto wire except from 
another wire hex or if required to unload from vehi- 
cle and wire hex is only one available. 

53.4 — May rout out of wire. Normal motion out of 
wire is ok but costs MFs equal to roll of a die. Units 
may enter an enemy occupied hex during the Move- 
ment Phase when exiling a wire hex but are subjeel 
to Point Blank Defensive Fire in the hex moved into 
and if broken are immediately eliminated (or cap- 
tured). If they are not eliminated they must take 
Point Blank Advancing Fire on the opposing oc- 
cupants of the same hex who would similarly be im- 
mediately eliminated if broken. If still occupying a 
hex with unbroken enemy units at the conclusion of 



31 



[he Advancing Fire Phase, Ihere would be no Ad- 
vance Phase movement as the units would be forced 
to engage in Close Combat. 

53.5— Wire may be cleared by rolling less than or 
equal to firepower dice roll including leadership 
effect. 

53.52— Attempts to remove wire, regardless of suc- 
cess or lack thereof, leave units TI. 
53.53-Demo Charge may remove wire with K1A 
result. 

53.54— Artillery FFEs of 80mm or greater can 
remove wire with a KIA roll. 

53.6— Wire is no LOS obstacle, 

53.7— Wheeled vehicles including animal drawn 
transport, cycles, and even bren carriers {108.29 & 
123.41) may nol enter wire. 

53.8— Fully tracked vehicles may destroy one wire 
counter (the first one traversed) and continue nor- 
mal motion. 

53.9— Halftracks may destroy one wire counter but 
must end the turn in that wire hex. 

75.9— No wire is allowed in marsh hexes. 

92,1— Cavalry may enter a wire hex only during the 
Movement Phase and must have sufficient MFs re- 
maining to leave the wire hex or dismount in it dur- 
ing that Phase. Cavalry entering a wire hex must 
roll a die and if that die roll is a '6' the unit is broken 
in the wire hex. 

99.4— Paratroops landing in wire take no addi- 
tional morale check for doing so. 

106.1— No infantry bypass is allowed through 

wired hexes. 

112.9— Vehicular bypass does NOT remove wire 

from the bypassed hex. 

114.52— Ski units may not enter wire hexes. 

The rules reflect the slowing effect of wire on 
troops in formation. Further they demonstrate the 
vulnerability of wire to tracked vehicles. How then 
might a player take best advantage from wire place- 
ment? 

Wire, like any other support weapon, (albeit a 
passive one) best functions if used in mass. 
Therefore try to think in terms of multiple blocks 
along one poorly defended route rather than a 
single block on each of several approaches. 

The best possible placement entails one hex be- 
tween rows of wire to ensure maximum movement 
loss. Naturally if there isn't room no law states you 
can't place wire cheek by jowl with the next. 

If tracked vehicles are present wire in woods can 
be doubly effective as this is much riskier to remove 
by tracked vehicles and precludes rout to that hex. 
Obviously placement at woods edge not only slows 
advance in the woods but also prevents infantry 
bypass in the hex. 

Deliberate gaps in the wire allow for greater 
density of wire elsewhere, permit a sally port for 
your own troops, and can pose another agonizing 
decision for your worthy opponent {did you 
boresight the gap or not?). 

If allowed hidden placement, one visible wire 
can suggest the existence of many more hidden ones 
in that locale. Nothing says you can't leave one wire 
exposed between tvvo woods hexes without others 
nearby. A little variation from your optimum setup 
can pay dividends in many future games. 

Some suggested wire placement in the already 
extant scenarios follows: 

Scenario 8—1 f you set up along the crest of hill 621 
consider wiring 2T5. 2S5, 2S3, 2Q4, 2N3, 2M4, 
2L2, and 2N6. Don't try to get cute as the US has 
enough reserve strength to eat up any farflung wire. 

Scenario 9 — Putting the wire atop the bunker hexes 
is ok but generally the Shermans just knock it aside 



(unless you nastily mine AND wire your own 
bunker hex). 1 also recommend wiring all the woods 
around your position. 

Scenario 11 — Assuming the American will generally 
fight for Board One, 1 generally place my wire in a V 
in the open in front of my main strongpoint. My 
preference is the factory (1X4) and so 1 put the wire 
in 1U6, 1V6, IW7, 1X6, 1Y6, and IZ5. If your 
American opponent tends lo try for Board Three 
consider 3L2, 3M3, 3N3, 303, 302, and 301. 

Scenario 12 — 1 urge you to use your American 
Engineer units to construct roadblocks rather than 
wire entanglements. This is a game of vehicular 
rather than infantry mobility. As such, wire might 
best be used to prevent deployment of infantry dis- 
mounting from vehicles. If, for instance, you place 
an M-10 in 2C2 then wiring 2N3, 2M3, 2L2, 2K1, 
2J1, and 213 rather narrows the German ability to 
employ infantry against your tank destroyer. 

Scenario 21— Hoping to slow a German thrust 
through the woods 1 generally place wire something 
akin to 3F6, 3G9, 3H6, 3H8, 316, 318, 3J8, 3L6, 
3L8, 3M7, 3M9, 3N7, 3N9, 308, 3010, 3P8, and 
3Q9, It is quite feasible to set the wire lines more 
forward or offset diagonally either north or south 
around 3K8. 

Scenario 22 — Although the wire can be emplaced in 
forward hexes I generally use the wire to discourage 
a Russian pure infantry thrust through the deep 
woods. As such I wire hexes 505 through 50 10 with 
504 to 507 and S09 to 5O10 inclusive. If the Rus- 
sian never makes a deep woods thrust then every 
other woods hex alongside the woodsroad will help 
keep him roadbound. Hexes to think about are 
5Q5, 5Q7, 503, 505, 5M2, 5M4, 5K2, 5K4, 513, 
and 515. 

Scenario 25— To force the German to dismount 
early I put the wire in 5Y4, 5Y5, 5Y6, and 5Y7. 

Scenario 31 — As I usually fire the woods on my left 
flank I tend to put ail my wire on the right. In order 
to prevent rapid dismounting of infantry into 
woods I wire hexes 4WI , 6V 10, 4V2, 4UI , 4U3, and 
4T1. To limit the attack on the third level building I 
place my final two wire counters in 6K 10 and 6J 10. 
So that you may get a chance to experiment on 
your own, a scenario is appended in this issue's in- 
sert. 

"AFTER ACTION-FAST HEINZ (Scenario K)" 

The intent of these reports on the scenarios 
printed in the preceding issues is to provide players 
with, of numerous possibilities, ONE defensive 
setup, attacker initial position, and basic tactical 
approach. 

German: 9-1 leader, one 4-6-7 and the MMG in 
V7, 4-6-7 in X2. Boresight MMG on 04. Two 
minefield factors per hex in LI, Ml, M2, M3, M4, 
M5, M10, Nl, N2, N3, N5, N7, N10, 05. OS, P3, 
P5, Q3, and Q6. Twenty minefield factors in V6 
and R5. 

Russian: Enter both tanks on II, one squad 
enters II, all other troops enter Gl through B0 
inclusive. 

Attacker's Tactics: Use your one squad that 
enters on the road to run down the road to 04 
(doubletime plus road bonus). If he makes it you 
will know how far forward you can safely send your 
T50. Push your T50 as far down the road as you 
safely can and leave it there for a turn or two. It 
both blocks LOS and clears a minesafe path down 
the road. Throw your T37A immediately at one of 
the three marshes. Use amphibious motion to cross 
the marsh next turn and exit marsh to rampage into 
town following the turn. The Russian main infantry 
body should try to filter into the orchard. From 
there, cross the marsh at Pi, Use this position to 
enter buildings around R6and to clear road around 



R5/Q5 of mines. Work early to clear building L3 of 
mines so it can safely be used as rally point. Expose 
T50 to possible BOG only if required. Move quickly 
into town so as to minimize forward positions Ger- 
man reinforcements can take. Plan to win this on 
last turn. 

Defender's Tactics: Your screening forces 
should take as many small -2 DRM shoes as you 
can get. Fall back slowly. Plan to sacrifice your 
screening force so that the reinforcements can enter 
with minimal interference, if the reinforcements 
can hold DD4 building and FF7 woods by turn 
seven the game is strongly in your favor. 

If the Russian is bold he'll either lose or win the 
game by turn four. If the Russian is cautious the 
battle will seesaw on the east edge of town for the 
final two turns. i. 



AHIKS 



AH1KS (pronounced A-hixs) is an international 
society of mature individuals who play historical 
simulation games by mail. Established in 1966 by 
adults who were tired of easy, immature, 
sporadic, and/or disappearing opponents, 
AHIKS exists to minimize encounters with such 
opponents and to facilitate playing by mail. 

AHIKS is a society. We take pride in the high 
degree of personalization which has characterized 
AHIKS from its inception. Many members have 
become the best of friends over the years, and fre 
quentiy members get together for face-to-face 
games or even conventions. 

AHIKS is indeed international, and we hope to 
expand our international contacts. While a ma- 
jority of our members currently reside in the 
United States, there are sizeable contingents of 
Canadians and overseas Americans affiliated 
with our US-headquartered regions, and roughly 
a fourth of the membership consists of Europeans 
affiliated with our region headquartered in 
England. Total membership is approximately 
500. 

Our success as an international organization, as 
measured by the number of games underway be 
tween opponents of different nations, was made 
possible by our 1CRK (pronounced "irk") 
system. This marvelous invention eliminates the 
need to refer to stock publications or other 
paraphernalia, while cutting across border, 
language, and lime difficulties. Thus game situa- 
tions requiring die rolls can be resolved in the 
same convenient and foolproof manner whether 
your opponent is across the street or across the 
ocean. 

AHIKS membership is open to members of all 
races, creeds, and nationalities, as well as to 
members of both sexes. One membership require- 
ment is that all members must play their games 
promptly, courteously, and to completion. The 
other is that members (with a few exceptions) 
must be 21 or over. 

If you enjoy gaming, can you really afford not to 
join? For additional information, and/or for 
membership application forms, please contact: 

Bruce Maston, MD 
1404 Union Street 
Schenectady, NY 12308 
or Alan D. White 
77 Brackley Road 
Hazlemere 
High Wycombe 
Bucks HP15 7EY, U.K. 



32 




AN INTERVIEW WITH ALAN R. MOON 



by Don Greenwood 



DJG: Were you involved in the hobby before com- 
ing to work a! AH? 

ARM: As a gamer and as a contributor to THE 
GENERAL, but not as a designer/developer. 

DJG: Why did AH hire you? 
ARM: Well, basically Don Greenwood (that's you) 
needed an assistant editor. He had been doing the 
whole magazine himself as well as working on 
games. He had started moaning constantly about 
being overworked. So, after submitting several 
articles for THE GENERAL, 1 started dropping 
hints that I'd like to come and help him out. 1 talked 
to Eric Dott (President of AH) at OR1G INS 79 and 
he seemed interested. When 1 graduated from col- 
lege in August I came down to Baltimore for an in- 
terview. A month later 1 moved. 

DJG: So you were hired just to work on the 

magazine? 

ARM: Sort of. But everyone here works on games, 

and I was given game projects almost from the 

start. 

DJG: Which do you enjoy doing more, working on 
the magazine or on games? 
ARM: Definitely working on games, especially now 
that I am designing my own as well as developing. 

DJG: Have you enjoyed developing games. 
ARM: Very much. I have been very fortunate. First 
AH bought Battleline and 1 got to work on FLA T 
TOP, which is one of my favorite games. Now, AH 
has bought up some SPI games including CON- 
QUISTADOR, another of my favorites. And if that 
wasn't enough, I even got to name a game 
MOONSTAR. 

DJG: Here's one you always like to ask. Do you 
have a design philosophy? 

ARM: Not really. The only thing that is important 
to me is that a game be fun to play. 

DJG: Do you feel you have been influenced by 
other designers? 

ARM: I'm definitely influenced by other games, 
games I like, so I guess that means I am influenced 
by some designers, Craig Taylor and Steve Peek, in 
particular, are what I consider gamer's designers. 
They are two of the few designers outside of Avalon 
Hill who seem to enjoy playing games. Most 



designers are embarrassed to admit they play 
games. There is a real difference between a simula- 
tion designer and a game designer. And I don't 
think anybody can be a good game designer without 
enjoying playing games. 



Alan R. Moon 

Born: 193] (Southampton, England) 
PBM Experience; DIPLOMACY 
First Wargame: AFRIKA KORPS 

Favorite War-games: 1776, FLATTOP, BATTLE OF THE BULGE 
81, DOWN WITH THE KING, JUNTA, CAESAR AT ALESIA. 
DUNE, CONQUISTADOR. STELLAR CONQUEST. 
NAPOLEON, WAS, VITP 

Favorite Non- Wargames: CIVILIZATION. 1819, ACQUIRE. 
FLACK SPY. FOOTBALL STRATEGY. BRIDGE 
Outside Interests: Poetry, Running, Theatre. Art, Reading 
Employed by AH: 1V79 
AH Designs: BLACK SPY 

AH Developments: INTERN. FORTRESS EUROPA. HEX- 
AGONY. TWIXT. MOONSTAR. BUREAUCRACY. COLD. 
DOWN WITH THE KING, FLATTOP 

DJG: So in the payability versus realism debate 
you are solidly on the payability side? 
ARM: Yes. If a game can be a simulation as well, 
fine. But too much simulation inevitably leads to a 
game system that becomes too much work to play 
or enjoy. The trend in the last year has been back 
towards more simple games and that's fine with me. 

DJG: Would you rather design or develop? 
ARM: I like both. Since i've been here, I've never 
had to develop a game 1 didn't want to work on. As 



long as that is the policy, I hope 1 can combine 
developing and designing. Designing is much 
harder than developing and il is nice to be able to 
lake a break and do some developing during less- 
creative periods. 

DJG: Are you interested in history? 

ARM: Again, not really. 1 enjoy history only 

because, and when, it is the basis for a good game. 

DJG: Does this mean you have no favorite 
historical period in wargames? 
ARM: Yes. I do like a large number of World War 
II naval games but 1 think this has to do more with 
the game systems than the subject matter. Naval 
games tend to contain many things 1 enjoy like hid- 
den movement, simple mechanics, and limited piece 
density. 

DJG: Do you enjoy fantasy role- playing games? 
ARM: No. But I don't mind their bringing in more 
females to the hobby. 

DJG: Do you enjoy non- wargames? 
ARM: Just as much, or more, than wargames. I 
also tend to enjoy multi-player games even more 
than two player games. I guess this has to do with 
my real reasons for playing games. 1 enjoy three 
iitiitjis: the challenge of making decisions and 
forming a good strategy, the social aspects, and 
the actual feel of the game pieces and mechanics. 
The subject can be anything. If it's a good game, 
I'll play it. There are times when I get kind of 
disgusted at the hobby because people lake game 
playing too seriously. I don't want gamers to get 
like professional athletes. In a time when frisbee 
players turn professional, I look on games as one 
of the last refuges of pure fun. 

DJG: Has there been one game you've enjoyed 
working on more than the others? 
ARM: Yes. DOWN WITH THE KING. While it 
was the most work, it was also the most fun. The 
game has a lot of twists and turns and tends to 
bring out the best in players. 

DJG: Is it similar to KINGMAKER'! 
ARM: Not at all. The games do have similar 
settings as DOWN WITH THE KING is set in 
Fandonia, a fantasyland War Of The Roses era 
England. But this is where the similarity ends. For 



33 



one thing, DOWN WITH THE KING has no 
board. The Game is played with cards, counters, 
and charts. It deals with court intrigue, politics, 
and diplomacy. The funny thing about the game is 
the way it necessitates cooperation and conflict be- 
tween players at the same time. Since everyone 
wants to overthrow the King, players must 
cooperate to some extent to weaken him, but once 
the King is weakened they must battle each other 
for the right to overthrow him. It's one of those 
games that get people hooked almost immediately 
because it's so much fun to play. There tends to be 
a lot of laughter and good natured revenge. It is 
also a game where no one is ever out of the game. 

DJG: How complex is it? 

ARM: It's basically a very simple game. The actual 
mechanics are easy. However, there are so many 
things that can happen, that there had to be a lot 
of rules to cover all the eventualities. It is a very 
easy game to teach people, but one person must 
read the rules and know them pretty well first. The 
first few games may take a long time as people get 
to know what they can do and what they should 
do, but with experience the game usually ends in 
two to three hours. 

DJG: Why was it so much work? 
ARM: Because everytime it was played, something 
new occurred requiring a new rule or the clarifica- 
tion of an existing one. It is an ambitious game. 
Considering what has been crammed into it, the 
rulebook is quite short. 

DJG: Were you as happy with the other new 
releases you worked on? 

ARM: Very much so. The release of FLA T TOP 
was a tremendously satisfying event for me. It is a 
game that is my exception to the rule as 1 generally 
dislike and avoid complicated games. But FLAT 
TOP is so intense and exciting it makes the effort 
and time to play it seem well spent. 1 was also 
pleased with BLACK SPY, especially since it is my 
first design. 1 have played it many times since its 
release and still enjoy it. As a matter of fact, 1 con- 
tinue to enjoy all three of these games, which is 
unusual since there is a tendency to never touch a 
game you've worked on after it is published. 

DJG: What are you working on now? 
ARM: I have one main project which is my own 
design called LAND OF THE GIANTS. I also 
have three or four other designs of my own that 
are in various stages, in my mind and on paper. 
And then there are the "minor" projects like the 
development of FUR Y IN THE WEST, the second 
edition of STARSHIP TROOPERS, and CON- 
QUISTADOR. Eventually, I will also be doing a 
second edition rulebook for FORTRESS 
EUROPA. 

DJG: Can you tell us a little about LAND OF 
THE GIANTS. 

ARM: I am trying to make it a simple fantasy 
boardgame with a lot of variety. Included will be 
different types of scenarios for different numbers 
of players. Things like battles between kingdoms, 
chase scenarios where one side chases another, in- 
filtration scenarios where one side tries to get 
across the board, and quest scenarios where each 
player has a goal to achieve. 

DJG: Does it have any similarity to MAGIC 
REALM! 

ARM: Not really. It does have many of the same 
fantasy elements. The characters include amazons, 
wizards, archers, ogres, and dwarfs. The monsters 
include giants, ores, goblins, wolves, and 
sorcerers. Also, both games are set in a wilderness 
area and use non-hex movement. Beyond this, 
there is little similarity. 

DJG: Will the game have a regular board or a hex- 
tile set like MR"! 
ARM: Neither. The board is setup by placing a 



variable number of the 120 2'/i" square tiles in a 
prearranged pattern. The different types of terrain 
on the tiles include swamps, woods, river, and 
buldings. Each of the tiles has paths leading off 
two, three, or all four of its sides. Many of the 
areas have clearings which is where monsters 
appear . 

DJG: Can you tell us a little bit about the game 
mechanics? 

ARM: A player can have one or more characters 
and he can form one or more parlies with these 
characters. Each party may move one area (tile) 
per turn. If it is an unexplored tile, the player must 
first cheek to see if the path connects to the adja- 
cent tile he is trying to move. If it doesn't the party 
can't move. If the area has a clearing, monsters 
along with any items such as treasure are 
generated. The player must then decide whether to 
hide, to withdraw, or to fight the monsters. Party 
versus party battles are also possible. 

DJG: What is the combat system like? 
ARM: Each character and monster has abilities 
with certain weapons. In addition, players have 
specific abilities when performing actions such as 
hiding, withdrawing, stealing, and healing. A 
player can choose his force and so can decide what 
type of game to play by this selection. During com- 
bat, each character may make one weapon attack, 
usually using the weapon he has the most skill 
with. However, since weapon attacks are resolved 
in order of attack priority, bow before sword, 
sword before axe, etc., characters may be forced to 
use other weapons in an attempt to kill or wound 
monsters before Ihe monsters make their weapon 
attacks. Any surviving characters and monsters 
after all weapon attacks then melee. There are 
multiple rounds of combat with retreat possible 
between rounds. 

DJG: What do you think makes this game dif- 
ferent from other fantasy boardgames? 
ARM: The main strength of the game is it can be 
many things. It is simple to learn or teach others. It 
can be quick or it can be long, depending on the 
scenario chosen. There is a lot of room for expan- 
sion either by the players or by AH in the form of 
expansion kits which would depend on the initial 
success of the game. Most importantly though, it is 
fun. It may be criticized for combining various 
unrelated fantasy elements, but this mix is what 
will make it a "gamers" game. Finally, it is a 
fantasy game that should appeal to wargamers as 
well as fantasy gamers. 

DJC: What are the subjects for your other 
designs? 

ARM: The one I've done the most work on is 
UNITED STATES SENATOR. It's unfortunate 
that it probably would not be a great seller because 
of the subject matter and it may never be published, 
because it could be a great game. It has everything 
that makes a game fun. Every move a player 
makes is a decision. Sometimes, players must 
cooperate, sometimes they must work against each 
other. If it sounds interesting, write to Don Green- 
wood and tell him you'd like to see it. The other 
one worth mentioning is a card game called 
TRICKS. It's not for kids though. Two others I 
have done some work on are a modern Middle 
East political game and a Space Empire game. 

DJG: What does the future hold for you? 
ARM: At the moment, my only real goal is to find 
a gorgeous female gamer (age 18-45). And if 
anyone reading this fits the bill, write to me care of 
Avalon Hill. A picture would be appreciated. 
You've already got mine. 



r 



CONVENTION CALENDAR 

THE GENERAL will lisL any gaming convention in this space 
free ot charge on a space available basis provided that we are 
notified at lease four months in advance of the convention dale. 
Each lining must include the name. date, site, and contact ad- 
dress of the convention. Additional information of interest to 
Avalon Hill gamers such as tournaments or events utilizing AH 
games is solicited and will be printed if made available. 
Avalon Hill does not necessarily attend or endorse these gather- 
ings, nor do we guarantee that events using AH games will be 
held. Readers are urged lo contact the listed sources for further 
information before making plans to attend. 

FEBRUARY 5-6-7 
GENCON SOUTH, Jacksonville Beach, FL 
Contact: P.O. Box 16371, Jacksonville, FL 
32216. NOTE: DIP, RB, SL, WQ, WS&IM, 
KM, BR, PB, AF, MA, TB, Acquire 

FEBRUARY 5-6-7 
WARCON, College Station, TX 
Contact: P.O. Box J-l, College Station, TX 
77844. (713-845-1515) NOTE: SL, DIP, KM 

FEBRUARY 12-13-14 
MAINECON '82, Portland, ME 
Contact: John Wheeler, 245 Water St., Bath, 
ME 04530. NOTE: Primarily miniatures. 



FEBRUARY 13-14-15 
ORCCON, Anaheim, CA 
Contact: P.O. Box 2577, Anaheim, CA 92804. 
NOTE: Wargame, sports, fantasy, SF, and 
family game tournaments 

FEBRUARY 13-14-15 
DUNDRACON VI, Oakland, CA 
Contact: 386 Alcatraz Ave., Oakland, CA 
94618. NOTE: SF & Fantasy Role Playing only. 

MARCH 19-20-21 
NEOCON 1, Akron, OH 
Contact: Convention Lords, Inc., P.O. Box 
4045, Akron. OH 44321 
Note: Wide Assortment of Events 



MAY 28-29-30-31 
GRIMCON IV, Oakland, CA 
Contact: P.O. Box 4153, Berkeley, CA 94704. 
NOTE: Fantasy-SF. 

MAY 30 

M.l.G.S. Ill, Kitchener, ONT 

Contact: Les Scanlon, 473 Upper Wentworth 

St., Hamilton, Ontario, CANADA L9A 4T6. 



JUNE 11-12-13 
MICHIGAN GAMEFEST, Detroit, MI 
Contact: Metro Detroit Gamers, P.O. Box 787, 
Troy, MI 48099. NOTE: Many AH events 
among a wide range of gaming activities. 

JULY 3-4 
FIRST ANNUAL ATLANTA SQUAD 
LEADER OPEN, Atlanta, GA 
Contact: D. R. Munsell, 2327 Dayron Circle, 
Marietta, GA 30062. (404-973-6040) NOTE: 
Five round, round-robin SL tournament 

JULY 23-24-25 
ORIGINS 82, Baltimore, MD 
Contact: Atlanticon, Inc., P.O. Box 15405, 
Baltimore, MD 21220. NOTE: The National 
Adventure Gaming Show including many AH 
sponsored events among a wide range of other 
gaming activities. 



34 



AIR DROP ON CRETE 

No Trip To The Promised Land — For Either Side by Don Eisan 



For one week in May, elite German airborne 
units assaulted the island of Crete, turning it into a 
cauldron. When the battle ended it was hard to tell 
the victors from the vanquished. Historians still 
disagree on who the final victor was. Despite this, 
or possibly because of this, the circumstances sur- 
rounding this campaign form the perfect 
framework for an historical simulation wargame. 

There are few games on the market today that 
require as much thought and pre-planning of 
strategy as AIR ASSAULT ON CRETE, It is the 
very relationship between your plans and your 
opponent's plans that will frequently decide the 
outcome of the game. This is not to say that the 
operational level tactics and strategies do not also 
play a key roll, but any major attempt to alter your 
original strategy is difficult if not impossible. Once 
the win catches at the first piece of silk and billows it 
out to form an umbrella of air, the die is cast. 

One of the reasons for the need to plan out your 
actions in advance is that there are really three 
separate battles taking place; one on each of the 
three boards. The three actions are linked together 
in the game by German air power and the victory 
conditions. The distances between each area and 
the limited amount of transport capabilities 
prevents the transfer of forces from being a viable 
option. If the initial assault forces find themselves 
dropping into a flak trap, they will find it very dif- 
ficult to say afloat in full battle gear. On the other 
hand, the Allied player may find hair of his non- 
combat units destroyed on the first turn. Since the 
game is not very forgiving, it becomes even more 
important that you understand the options you 
have open to you. This article will try to focus on 
the available strategies that can be used by both 
sides. However, it cannot replace imagination when 
it comes to doing the unexpected. 

To win, the Allied player must destroy at least 
75 points worth of German units AND evacuate at 
least 80 points worth of their own units. There is 
another condition for a quick Allied victory by 
denying the German player all three airfields at the 
end of the eighth turn. While this situation does not 
occur very often it is still something neither player 
should lose sight of. 

it is no coincidence that the Allied noncom- 
batai.'s total exactly 80 points. These sixteen units 
represent the prizes in the game. The Allies must try 
to protect these units and evacuate them as quickly 
as possible. If we look at Table D\ we will see the 
distribution of these evacuation points. The bulk of 
these are in the Suda area. While the noncombat- 
ant's only real function in the game is evacuation 
points they are not the only units that gain points in 
this fashion. The Allied H.Q. units have a very 
limited vaJue in combat but are equal to the non- 
combatants in evacuation points. Even with a total 
of 115 points for these two forces, most Allied 
evacuation goals are met by the evacuation of the 
combat troops. Keep this in mind. The Allied player 
dare not pull these units out until German casualties 
have reached 75 points. 

Table #2 shows the allocation of combat factors 
for the various sectors. You will notice that the Ger- 
man convoys and air landing units have not been in- 
cluded. The German high command had grave 
doubts about the ability of the Italian Navy to get 
any large force of naval and amphibious units safe- 
ly to the beaches. The German player should take 
the same attitude. The air landing units on the other 
hand, while having little influence on the course of 
the game for the first 8 turns or so, can have a 



decisive effect on the outcome of a long game. It 
would seem that from looking at the number of air 
landing units available to the German player that 
this would throw the balance of the game to his side. 
This is not so. 

First, there is a limited capacity for each airfield 
which represents the number ofstacking points that 
can be brought in on one turn. For example, at 
Retimo airfield only one infantry battalion can be 
brought in each turn. In addition, units may not 
move on the turn they land and no units may be 
brought in on night turns, which is every fourth 
turn. 

Since we cannot count on the convoys and the 
reinforcements arriving by air transport will take 
several turns to get into position to be used effec- 
tively, we must limit our basic plans to the airborne 
forces and the effect they will have on the game. By 
comparing the two tables by sector we begin to gel 
some feeling for the situation. We shall now discuss 
the various options open to each side. Always keep 
in mind, however, that if you do what your oppo- 
nent expects, you will lose most of your games, no 
matter which side you play. 

TABLE 1 
Evacuation Points 









Tfl 






/: 




V 
















„ « 


D9 


C 


c 






c> 








Z 6 




« 


M 




I 


-D 


o 




o 




'- 


i-i 












o 


Sector 











Maleme 


20 


5 


29 


1 


Suda 


45 


20 


77 


2 


Retimo 




5 


28 


3 


Heraklion 


10 


5 


33 


3 


Free Set Up 


5 




8 


1 


Total 


80 


35 


175 


10 



TABLE 2 
Combat Factors 





Allied 




German 




AH 

2 
< 


13 

c 


V 

< 


,34 

--> 

< 


in 

a 

p 

□ 


< 


Sector 














Maleme 


20 


22 


6 


34 


34 




Suda 


44 


54 


2 


43 


42 


2 


Glider Battalion 








10 


10 




Retimo 


27 


31 


3 


25 


24 




Heraklion 


29 


30 


7 


33 


33 




Free Set Up 


5 


7 


4 


18 


14 


2 


Total 


125 


144 


22 


163 


157 


4 



BASIC GERMAN STRATEGY. 

The strongest weapon available to the German 
player is air power. If he wastes it by continually at- 
tempting to neutralize the anti-aircraft guns or 
doubling the needed air factors in an attack to gain 
the odds he wants, he will find himself running out 
of time with too many of his objectives not yet ac- 
complished. Destroying the Allied anti-aircraft 
units in the areas the German must operate in has to 
be the first objective. There is not much point in 
capturing the airfield if a flak gun is still within 
range. No matter what else you plan on using your 
air for on the first turn, the only known target is the 
H.M.S. York A/A platform. This should be 
destroyed on turn one. 



Another mistake the German player should 
avoid is to schedule a convoy to arrive in the 
Georgeopolis sector earlier than turn seven. This 
gives the Allied player too much flexibility in mov- 
ing his non-combatants prior to their evacuation. 
When thinking about which airfield you will try to 
capture don't try to make your initial drop area 
close to all three airfields. You only need to capture 
one of them to avoid any early defeat and the closer 
you are the higher your losses will be. 

The Maleme area looks the best bet particularly 
with the Glider Battalion added in. An examination 
of the area around the airfield, however, will show 
us thai there are excellent defensive positions. The 
Suda area looks fair, but with the spread of the 
Allied forces iheycan be destroyed in detail if done 
quickly. The Retimo area appears to be the poorest 
choice as the Allies can fight almost evenly in this 
sector. The Germans have an edge in the Heraklion 
sector because Ihe Allies have rather poor defensive 
positions and need to protect both the airfield and 
the port facilities. 

The German's best chance is the Maleme field. 
You have two extra turns to get the job done and the 
airlanding units are closest to where they will be 
needed. If the Allied player is expecting it and has 
done a good job of preparing for it, either of the 
other two would be better. The only two choices for 
drop sites are just west of the airfield al D8 & 9 and 
E8 and 10. Your goal is to take the airfield on turn 
four with the high ground south of it secured by 
turn three. The idea is to strike fast and hard using 
the Glider Battalion as a key factor. The other area 
is the open ground to the east of the airport staying 
far enough south to prevent getting a dip in the 
ocean. This approach lakes longer bui is usually 
safer. 

Your choice of airfields to be assaulted and your 
method of approach somewhat dictaie your 
strategy in the Suda sector. Since your only advan- 
tage in this area is to destroy the enemy piecemeal 
you cannol afford to splil your forces. And since 
the more conservative drop to the easi in the 
Maleme sector will need some help to keep the 
forces west of Galaias pinned down you may as well 
set your drop around the reservoir. This means you 
have just seven more turns to reach the Suda port. It 
will take a heavy concentration of air power and 
your turn six and seven reinforcements to pull this 
off, but it can be done. 

Retimo is really the easiest to capture particular- 
ly if you take your opponent by surprise. In most 
games you will make your drop with the idea of con- 
tainment and not the capiure of ihe airfield. If that 
is what he expects, then go for the airfield on the 
drop turn. You should plan on your reinforcements 
coming in, in this area as well. You may need help 
holding it. 

Heraklion looks easier than it is. if this is your 
primary largei area then try lo land as far to the 
west and south as you can and plan on taking the 
pori first and then ihe airfield, taking out as many 
allied units as you can. You will need air support in 
this area. It may even help to try and knock out 
some anli-aircrafl guns on turn two if you can spot 
ihe hidden locations. 

Back ai the Suda sector if we don 't have to drop 
around the reservoir, then our best bet is to go in 
just lo the west of Suda porl without landing in Ihe 
drink. With the help oT the Glider Battalion, try to 
get quick control of the entrance hexes landing into 
the peninsula to keep from being bottled up in 



35 



[here. Keep in mind thai the forces you go in with 
must do it all. Any reinforcements will be needed 
elsewhere. 

No discussion of German strategy would really 
be complete without some mention of the convoys. 
If you don't count on them [hey are a very nice 
bonus but are no good to you if you don't schedule 
them where you need them. IT you are going in to 
the west of Maleme then set the first convoy for turn 
three at the Kisamos Bay Beach. It might be in- 
surance if you run into trouble capturing the air- 
field. If you are trying the more conservative ap- 
proach to capture Maleme then plan both convoys 
for turn seven, eight, or nine in the Georgeopolis 
section. You "re goi ng to need help in cut ting o Tf t he 
evacuation. If it's Retimo then try for the first con- 
voy on this beach around turn six. If at all possible, 
plan your convoys back to back at the same beach. 
As strong as the German air power is, it can only at- 
tempt to successfully neutralize the coastal defense 
guns in one sector. You also have to be damn lucky. 

Just as in MIDWA Y, you know what your best 
strategy is but doing what your opponent does not 
expect is what will win the game for you. One last 
word for the German player; don't lose sight of the 
order of priority of your objectives. 

1. Destroy or capture any anti-aircraft guns within 
range of your operations and particularly in range of 
your primary airfield target. 

2. Capture one airfield and secure it by turn eight. 
Notice 1 said one, not three. 

3. Set up strong defensive positions to deny the Allied 
player his avenues of evacuation. 

4. Concentrate on destroying H.Q.'s and non- 
combatants. Go after the Allied troops with the high 
value evacution points while trying to avoid too many 
cosily exchanges. 

BASIC ALLIED STRATEGY 

Try to anticipate the German player's intentions 
and develop your plans accordingly, I could end 
this discussion now since in essence that is exactly 
what is required. If 1 did, however, I'm sure you 
would feel cheated after reading this far. Therefore, 
lets go back to our tables and the basic objectives 
for the Allied player. He must protect those 
civilians and the brains of his combat forces. Not 
because they are smarter but because he needs the 
points. The Allied player only has a few units that 
he can parcel out to the sections he feels are the most 
likely primary targets. While these forces do not 
look like they could control a meeting of the local 
pacifist group, the units comprise the best weapons 
the Allies have. 

Those light and anti-aircraft/ ranged artillery 
pieces are the most useful weapons and should be 
protected at all cost. Even after an airfield has been 
captured, they can move into position and at least 
deny the Germans the use of the landing strips. In 
any defensive setup they are the key. Those armor 
units can often be the difference between reaching 
your first goal of destroying 75 points worth of 
German paratroops. Remember, however, they are 
worthless in rough terrain. If you don't have roads 
they don't go. That lovely little engineer unit should 
not be overlooked either. He can buy you a few 
turns in delaying any forces biting at your heels by 
destroying bridges in your wake. 

If you're looking forward to a hex by hex 
perfect defense, you won't find it here. In all the 
games I have played I doubt if I ever set up the same 
way twice. By using a combination of decoy 
counters and some of your precious civilians, you 
can spread a wide band of units over the entirety of 
the jump areas. This gives you one up on the die roll 
modifier before he even leaves the plane. 

If my opponent can be counted on to make 
Maleme airfield his primary target 1 can set up a lit- 
tle surprise that will cost him the game by turn eight 
70% of the time. There is some risk because your 
chances of getting out alive are not as good if he 
does take an airfield. All the miscellaneous units 
with the exception of one armor unit are thrown in- 



to this sector. The heavy anti-aircraft gun goes on 
the airport hex itselL I will vary this occasionally if 
he has tried a blind air strike on this position in 
previous games. 

As the Allied player, there is one important 
point you must keep in mind. As long as the Ger- 
man player is kept from obtaining an airfield, he 
must continue to play the roll of the attacker. Once 
the airfield is captured you become the attacker. 
Either try to retake the airfield or try to fight your 
way out so you can evacuate units. The earlier he 
captures an airfield the less likely he has sustained 
the number of losses required . This again forces ad- 
ditional offensive actions on your part. The longer 
you can delay him the more he will be forced to take 
risks and expose himself to costly exchanges. This 
will be true no matter what sector appears to be his 
main target. 

With this in mind let us go back to our discus- 
sion of the Maleme area. The drift modifiers are far 
more Important than just trying to get him to drop 
into the sea. The more you can spread his forces 
during the drop the longer it will take him to rccom- 
bine into an effective fighting force. This also gives 
you a better chance of inflicting losses. With the 
heavy anti-aircraft gun on or adjacent to the air- 
field and all reasonable drop hexes covered with a 
unit or decoy we can count on a * +2' to start with. 

Our goal is to try to establish a drop modifier of 
four or more in the expected drop area. The Allied 
player, however, does not have enough flak guns to 
accomplish this in more than a couple of areas. 
Spreading our anti-aircraft fire out to cover all 
possible drop zones will have little effect on the drift 
in any given area. It is better to concentrate these 
units into flak traps. If you guess right the German 
can be in trouble. If you are wrong you are not that 
much worse off than if you had spread them thin. 

The two light anti-aircraft guns will help us ac- 
complish this task. To be effective even in this one 
sector we must try to anticipate his avenue of ap- 
proach. We need a safe but effective area for these 
units. The most obvious location is on rough terrain 
with a protective combat unit. The German knows 
this and his Luftwaffe forces will be looking for 
that type of combination to knock out. You should 
also keep in mind that once these units find 
themselves in an enemy ZOC they may not 
withdraw. With their limited range, a great deal of 
thought must be given to their placement. 

An experienced German player will not drop 
along the evacuation road. Trying to drop between 
the two ridges has the greatest loss potential while 
gaining very little in territorial position. If the drop 
was intended to contain the Allied forces then he 
might choose Gil and F9& 11. With this ruled out 
we can concentrate on the two most likely ap- 
proaches. If we could be fairly certain that he will 
try coming in to the west of the airport then D7 is 
quite safe. It also covers the important drop hexes. 
E8 is also quite safe and it expands your range to 
cover E10 as well just in case. Try to stay off the 
high ground on the drop turn. That's where he ex- 
pects you to be. Remember, when placing these 
valuable units alone in a hex make sure you have a 
big infantry battalion in an adjacent hex so that 
[hey can combine to offer the anti-aircraft unit 
some protection on the first turn. 

If he tries for the big clear area to the east your 
choices are even better. E 12 and Fl 3 are both choice 
locations. Mix up your hex selection so he can never 
be sure what hexes to neutralize. G13 and G14 are 
safe locations and still get the job done. There is one 
major difference in this open area over the western 
drop site. Your combat units will not inflict the 
damage to his forces in drift combat that the other 
area will give you. With the exception of G 16 he will 
not drop on any doubled positions. Remember, his 
drift will take him northeast. If you want to have a 
welcoming party waiting put them in E14. Frankly, 



I tend to use decoys to cover the initial drop hex and 
hold my combat units back. You don't want him to 
get between you and the airfield if you can help it. 

Looking at it from the German viewpoint this 
whole area opposite the Maleme beach looks like a 
nice safe spot. You can give him a rude awakening 
by placing an anti-aircraft unit from the Suda sector 
in G17 or F17. The German could lose close to 50% 
of his force. 

Now the Suda sector. If a total commitment has 
been made to defending the Maleme sector you do 
not have too many options in this region. If the Ger- 
man is looking to drop south of the reservoir don't 
discourage him . Leave that area clear and if he does 
drop in that sector consolidate your forces as quick- 
ly as possible while moving eastward. Use the ab- 
solute minimum of units to delay him. Remember 
he cannot leave one ZOC, move through another 
hex, and enter another ZOC. A nice tactic is to 
move a weak unit adjacent to his forces just lo deny 
him the ability to move and fight in the direction he 
wishes to go in. This will work even from the blind 
side. 

Your chances of preparing any surprises in this 
region are just about out of the question. You are 
forced to disperse your units over most of the see- 
tor. You have a small force that you can set up at 
Galatas and in the rough terrain to the west of it. 
You have a little stronger force opposite Canea. In 
trying to set up our defense we can at least rule out 
the places he cannot start his drop in such as F21 or 
F25. You can pretty well rule out F1S through 22. 
With all the soft spots to land he will also try to 
avoid the prison hex and probably 121 unless you 
neglect to garrison H21, 

You can try to discourage him from going where 
you don't want him to go. You should keep him 
from getting a foothold east of the wadi that runs 
from Mournies to the coast. By using most of your 
combat units assigned to the area between 20 and 22 
along with a few non-combatants and perhaps a 
decoy if you can spare it, a pretty impressive slack 
of units can be built in F and G22. Your greatest 
danger lies between hex rows 23 and 25. This is 
where I'll put my available anti-aircraft guns. All 
should be in range of H25. Every hex in the region 
that the drop can start on should be covered. That 
extra armor unit from your free setups should go in- 
to this area and make sure he has some infantry for 
company. 

Remember the key to the Suda area is the port 
and the road leading to the east. You have two units 
in this section you will want lo protect. The dock 
worker and the Welch Battalion. Why the big guy? 
He is your strongest unit if you need to take a posi- 
tion or break a road block. Don't let him be en- 
circled by German paratroops dropping from ihe 
skies. 

The Retimo sector offers the best chance for the 
Allies to slug it oui with the Germans. There are no 
noncombatants lo protect and the initial German 
forces are the weakest. Your setup should be to pro- 
tect the airfield and not any escape route. Once the 
airfield appears secure look to try to capture R53 
above Retimo. 

The Heraklion sector possesses some additional 
problems. You need the port facilities almost as 
much as you need to hold the airfield. The German 
is strong enough in [his sector to contain your forces 
and prevent any southern evacuation route. If this 
appears to be his tactic you may have to concentrate 
on the port, and if lost, attempt to retake it quickly. 
Nothing will break a German's spirit quicker than 
to see most of your uni ts in t his area suddenly disap- 
pear by sea leaving a nice airfield and a lot of Ger- 
mans with no place to go. Those combat battalions 
count as much as the civilians if you can evacuate 
them. 

Continued on Page 43, Column 3 



36 



ASSAULT FROM THE AIR BY MAE, 



A PBM System for Air Assault on Crete by Don Eisan 



If you have grown tired of turning over your in- 
verted units to find out who is in what stack, and 
felt that AIR ASSAULT ON CRETE did not lend 
itself to play by mail, I have some good news for 
you. The game not only plays better by mail, it can 
be done with a very straight forward method, 

in today's market, when so many games do not 
lend themselves well to PBM, it's refreshing to find 
one that is better suited to PBM than FTF. The 
close density of units, the importance of accurate 
movement, and the annoyance of having your units 
face down in from of you, all contribute to a game 
better suited to PBM. 

The movement restrictions area vital part of the 
game. Units cannot disengage at one location and 
attack somewhere else. Careful attention must be 
paid to units moving in wadis or rough terrain. 
These are the very things so often overlooked in the 
heat of live play. The game reaches its greatest 
potential by mail. If you have not tried it in this 
medium you are missing out on a very interesting 
and challenging experience. 

The game, being somewhat in the "Old Classic" 
tradition, lends itself very well to a simple mailing 
procedure. We have made a few changes to the rules 
but this can be justified even in light of historical 
simulation. After several years of play within 
A.H.I.K.S. the system has worked exceptionally 
well and there have been no adverse effects on play 
balance. 

INITIAL ALLIED SET-UP: The Allied player 
lists all of his units, including the ten decoy counters 
and their initial hex location. He mails this to his 
opponent in a sealed envelope for him to initial and 
return unopened. He also makes out a list of all the 
hexes he has counters in and the numberof counters 
in each hex. This is also forwarded to his opponent 
along with the sealed envelope. 

INITIAL AXIS SET-UP: After receiving the in- 
formation on the Allied placement the Axis player 
prepares his strategy for the game. He prepares a 
list showing the turn of arrival and the destination 
of his two planned convoys. He places this in a sealed 
envelope and indicates on the outside the possible 
turns of arrival including three false indications. 
This, like the Allied set-up, will be initialed and 
returned. This sets the stage for the conflict to 
begin. 

AXIS FIRST TURN: The Axis player starts the 
game by listing all of his units and their initial drop 
hex. He also lists any air operations and their loca- 
tions. He picks a starting stock transaction and date 
and mails this to the Allied player. The Allied player 
proceeds to resolve any air operations. He then pro- 
ceeds to drift resolution and resolves this in the 
order the Axis player listed his units on hisOOB. If 
any drift combat results it should be resolved in an 
alphanumeric order using the next stock transac- 
tion after all the drift resolution has been com- 
pleted. The same procedure can be followed on any 
subsequent turn in which German units are being 
air dropped. 

INVERTED UNITS: This is the only area where 
we have departed from the rules of the game. There 
is also some justification for these changes besides 
the necessity of adapting it for PBM. It is hard to 
believe that after the initial drop turn in a sector, 
that the Allied forces would have an advantage over 



the Axis in terms of "Fog of War". When you con- 
sider that the Luftwaffe controlled the skies over 
Crete at this time it would seem that if any advan- 
tage existed it would be on the Axis side. Therefore, 
we have adopted a system in which an Allied unit 
which moves from its initial position is turned face 
up and identified on the OOB. Specifically, the 
changes concerning inverted units are as follows: 

1. Artillery and Anti-Aircraft units are turned 
face up and identified on the OOB by the Allied 
player during his movement phase, following any 
turn that these units were used in defensive fire. 
This includes any anti-aircraft modifiers used 
against any drift resolution or against any German 
airstrike, 

2. Artillery and Lt. Anti-Aircraft firing as 
ranged artillery must be identified on the turn they 
are used. 

3. If a unit is moved it must be shown on the 
OOB with its starting hex listed in the first column 
and its current location shown for the turn. 

4. Once a unit has been turned up and identified 
on the OOB it remains that way for the remainder 
of the game. This applies to both combat and non- 
combat units. 

5. Inverted units in a hex under air interdiction 
are only identified if the interdiction is successful. 

6. Keep in mind, however, that the game rules 
concerning Z.O.C.'s still apply and ail units must 
still be identified. 

In summary, a unit that moves, fires as artillery 
or anti-aircraft, or is in an enemy ZOC, is known 
and the unit's position must be identified. In addi- 
tion, units in a hex that has been successfully inter- 
dicted must also be identified. At the end of the 
game, verification is made by comparing the first 
column of the Allied OOB to the information con- 
tained in the sealed envelope which was returned to 
the Gee man player for this purpose. 



AIR BOMBARDMENT PHASE: Since this is 
handled prior to movement and combat, condi- 
tional provisions can be allowed for by listing these 
along with the Axis move. In the case of blind bom- 
bardment attacks on a hex with inverted units, if the 
results cause any Allied unit to be destroyed or 
neutralized the units in question would have to be 
identified along with the results. 



DEFENSIVE FIRE: With the limited number 
of units available in a sector for defensive fire it 
should be possible to anticipate such conditions and 
provide stock selections for their resolution. If you 
wish you may use small coin envelopes for this pur- 
pose for each sector. Just be sure to allow for com- 
bination firings as well. 



CONVOYS: On every turn that a convoy is 
possible the German player should send along a 
sealed envelope with a stock number listed on the 
outside. Only if the result meant that a landing 
could take place is the envelope opened. Otherwise 
the envelope is returned unopened to the Axis 
player. The envelope should contain information 
about the convoy, if there is one, the units, and the 
landing hex. In addition each unit in the first con- 
voy should be given a number from 1 through 6. 
Units in the second convoy use the following table: 



I'M I 


DIE RES I LT 


8-8-4 


1 


8-2 (art) 


2 


4-2 (art) 


3 


4-5-9 


4 


2*2-8 


5 


3*4-7 


6 



On the first round, the second Lt. Flak gun (4-2} 
is ignored. Starting with the second round the Lt. 
Flak gun assumes the number of the first unit 
chosen. 

Whenever you have a situation where only half 
the convoy arrives you use the next stock quotation, 
in order, until half the units have been picked by 
their number. If the die result obtained is equal lo 
the unit assigned that number, the unit arrives safely. 
The process is repeated until three units from the 
first convoy or four from the second convoy have 
been selected, 

COASTAL GUNS: The defensive fire of 
coastal guns should be resolved in sequence using 
the next available stock quotation from above. The 
procedure is to start with the coastal gun in range 
with the lowest alphanumeric hex location and fire 
each gun in sequence, resolving all firings for one 
gun before proceeding to the next. The order of fire 
for each gun is also by alphanumeric sequence of 
the target hexes with the units in the hex resolved in 
the order of their assigned die number from the 
landings. 

DRIFT COMBAT RETREATS: There is only 
one area where some mutual trust must be exercised. 
When a retreat occurs as the result of drift combat it 
will be up to the Allied player to retreat the Axis unit 
into the most favorable hex from the Axis player's 
point of view. This does not occur very often and in 
most cases the direction of retreat is fairly obvious, 
considering the rules. If in doubt, take the time to 
send it back and have the Axis player adjust his 
position before continuing on with the next turn. 

GENERAL COMMENTS: One other point 
needs to be covered. While it would be foolhardy to 
leave inverted non-combat units without a combat 
unit or decoy in the stack near enough to Axis units 
to restrict their movement, if it should occur it will 
mean an extra mailing. If the Axis player moves 
units adjacent to such a stack and these units could 
have moved further, then the non-combat units 
would be destroyed and the Axis player allowed lo 
continue his movement. Remember that while a 
decoy unit would restrict movement it would not 
protect the non-combat units in the same hex. 

One final point. I have often found it helpful to 
confirm the number of inverted counters still re- 
maining in a hex periodically as the game continues. 
This helps both players in handling those inverted 
units that still remain hidden each turn. 

Comments and/or questions should be directed 
to Don Eisan, 12115 Snow White Dr., Dallas, TX 
75234. Those expecting a reply should include a 
stamped, self-addressed envelope. 



ix 



37 



ON TO BERLIN 



Balancing the FORTRESS EUROPA Scenario By Jim Eiiason 



FORTRESS EUROPA is an excellent game. It 
is fun to play and it captures the flavor of the cam- 
paign quite well. However, I have tinkered with the 
rules of almost every game I've ever played and 
FORTRESS EUROPA is no exception. The Cam- 
paign Came has a few rules I disagree with and 1 
have devised some changes that I think make the 
game even better. The "On to Berlin" scenario, 
though, needs radical changes for the Allies to have 
any chance at all. 

The idea for the scenario is a good one. Many 
Campaign Games will end before the battle for the 
West Wall, and this scenario lets the players 
familiarize themselves with terrain vital to end game 
play and absorb the basic rules in a relatively sim pie 
tactical and strategic situation. However, the Allies 
can't dent the West Wall and the attack through 
Arnhem either goes slow and never gets to Bremen, 
much less Frankfurt, or goes fast and is crushed by 
a counterattack . 

The Allied attacks fail for four basic reasons: 1. 
They have virtually no manpower advantage over 
the Germans. 2. The iniiial tactical position causes 
the Allies problems. 3. The terrain is very favorable 
to the defender. 4. The Allies are too far behind 
schedule. 

The initial Allied advantage in combat factors is 
only 14Vo, 377 to 330, and the Germans have a 141 
to 139 advantage in steps. In addition, each side has 
12 "HQ" units, but two of the German ones are 
HQ troops that can be built into 6-4's with one 
replacement. The Allies get many more replace- 
ment steps, but an unfavorable attrition ratio (they 
will have few- attacks at 3-1 or better) and cancella- 
tion of U-Boal attacks by bad weather or German 
aircraft will more than make up for this. While the 
Allies enjoy an overall advantage in unit quality, 
the Germans have a superior capacity for massing 
strength at critical points because they have nine 
units stronger than six factors while the Allies have 
only four, plus two more that start at half strength. 

The Allied air forces cannot be relied upon to tip 
the balance. On the average only three clear weather 
turns can be expected during January and February 
and the Germans will likely cancel all ground sup- 
port on two of these, and some on the third. 

The starting position is full of dangers for the 
Allies. The limited rearranging of units allowed 
can 't alleviate them all . The hard won bridgehead at 
HH5 must be abandoned because it is too risky to 
hold. Several divisions north of Strasbourg are in 
danger of elimination by a Nordwind type offen- 
sive. Several half strength divisions in the Ardennes 
will be destroyed by a Bulge style frontal assault. 
Several more divisions must be diverted to capture 
the U-Boat bases at Lorient and St. Nazaire or the 
Americans will lose an average of seven divisions 
worth of replacements just to bad weather. The 
valuable and irreplaceable Canadian armored divi- 
sion can be cut down a step by a 1-1 attack that 
needsnosoakoff.AftertheGermanattacksofDec. 
Ill the Allies will actually have fewer combat fac- 
lors at the front than the Germans. 

The Germans have a continuous line of doubled 
positions, and frequently have doubled positions in 
reserve. Except around Arnhem, the Germans can 
ignore all retreats and need not attack adjacent 
units. Only a large number of D Elim results on 
West Wall hexes can give a wide front 
breakthrough, and that requires luck and massive 
ground support. Narrow from breakthroughs are 
easily contained and often crushed by the excellent 
German panzer divisions. 



The Allies are far from victory in the Campaign 
Game by the schedule implicit in the January Sud- 
den Death Victory Conditions. The Germans have 
seven of their nine objectives while the Allies have 
only two of their nine, and it is physically impossi- 
ble for the Allies to catch up in their one remaining 
turn. 

Hopefully I've convinced you that an "On to 
Berlin" scenario is a good idea but that the present 
one is hopelessly unbalanced. Since 1 lack the 
research facilities to refute the OB, which seems 
much too strong for the Germans, 1 have developed 
a number of changes in the rules to balance the 
game. Since many gamers will use optional rules 
and 7 or the variant rules proposed by Don Eisan et 
al in Vol. 17 No. 4 of THE GENERAL, I have 
referred to them in italics when appropriate. 

First, however, some more information is needed 
to set up the scenario. The Americans have five ar- 
mored and two infantry replacements accumulated. 
No special, British, or German replacements are ac- 
cumulated. The Allies have made three paradrops, 
the Germans one . The Allies have made both raids. 
All German cities within three hexes of Allied units 
have produced VS units; all are lost. The Germans 
chose Panzer Reserve option A and hence get no 
armored replacements. All of these were official 
AH rulings except they allowed two VS units to be 
set up anywhere behind German lines and they 
didn't specify a nationality for the Allied 
replacements. I use an initial oil production of 2 and 
a fuel reserve of 10. 



A. Offensives 

The Allies may declare one offensive per turn. 
After replacements are credited, but before units 
receive them, a blank counter is placed on top of 
one Allied HQ and all other units of the same na- 
tionality within four hexes. One armored replace- 
ment of the same nationality must be expended, 
though no unit receives this replacement. On the 
turn after the offensive is declared, or on any subse- 
quent turn, all units under a blank counter are sub- 
ject to the following rules: 1. The stacking limit is 
doubled for hexes containing only units of one of- 
fensive (use different colored counters for different 
offensives) on the first impulse. Normal stacking 
applies on the second impulse. Overstacked units 
which cannot move remain where they are, and may 
attack again, but units in excess of the stacking 
limits which can move, Allied player's choice, are 
retreated one hex, or two if necessary, by the Ger- 
man after second impulse combat, 2. For attacks 
made solely by units of one offensive, the Allied 
player adds 1 to the die roll on both impulses. This is 
in addition to any other combat bonus. 3. The first 
impulse movement allowance is halved, quartered 
in storms, rounded up. A unit which chooses to 
move its full factor may not overstack or get the at- 
tack bonus. 4. A unit must remove its blank counter 
once it moves, attacks, is attacked at odds of 1-2 or 
higher, or takes replacements. If the HQ must 
remove its counter, all are removed. 

B. AirerafI Aval lability 

1. The Allies get an additional SAC unit. 

2. There are two weather die rolls each turn, 
one for the German replacements and oil missions 
(the "German" front) and one for the rest of the 
tnlssio ns (the ' 'French ' ' fron t) . 



3. Each side is limited by weather to a max- 
imum number of aircraft per turn on any one front 
(see Table I), as welt as by the total number 
available. 



Table 1. 
Weather 



Aircraft Availability 
German Allied TAC Allied SAC 



Clear 
Overcast 
Overcast* 
Storm 



all 
2 

1 




4, in Overcast weather no more than one 
ground support TAC may be assigned to any one at- 
tack. 



C. Miscellaneous 

1. The Germans do not get +1 on all their 
December III attacks. Instead, they get an offensive 
commanded by Dietrich. All units within four hexes 
may overstack, etc. on the first turn. No German 
units are required to attack adjacent units on 
December 111, but any units which attack must at- 
tack all adjacent units. 

2. German units in fortifications that are not in 
rough terrain may refuse to retreat but only if one 
step is lost from any one defending unit. 

3. The U-Boat bases at Lorient and St. Nazaire 
are considered non-functional. No American 
replacements are ever lost, and the sea movement 
capacity is 6. 

4. The German may not use replacements to in- 
crease a unit's strength to more than 4. A half 
strength unit with original strength of S or 6 may 
absorb a replacement by putting a 4-3 in its place. 

5. Heydte is the only German unit that can 
paradrop. No German airlift is available. 

6. The Americans may build and rebuild the 
8-4s as many times as they want, though only six 
may be in play at once. Note: the official AH ruling 
is that none may be built at all. 

7. British and Allied Minor units are considered 
the same nationality for all purposes. American and 
French units are considered the same nationality for 
all purposes. 

8. Optional Rules 31.1, 31.4, 31.10, 31.12, and 
31.13 are in effect. Rules 1.1-1.3, II. 1, II1.I-1I1.4, 
1V.3-IV.7, V.1-V.4, VL2, and V1.3 (see below) are 
also recommended. 

D. Victory Conditions 

1 . The Germans win if they fulfill a condition 
of victory listed for the "Battle of the Bulge" 
scenario at t he end o f any turn up to January 1 1 . The 
units occupying the victory cities must be able to 
trace a supply line to a German controlled city in 
Germany. 

2. The Germans win if they ever capture Paris, 
Bruxelles or Anvers, regardless of supply lines. 

3. Unless the Germans win by I or 2 above, the 
game continues to March I and Campaign Game 
victory conditions apply. 

Besides balancing the "On to Berlin" scenario, 
I think you'll find that the above rules help convey 
the powerful nature of well planned offensives, the 
inability of the Luftwaffe to stop Allied air power, 
the poor quality of German replacements, especially 
in drop training, the Allies' ability to push through 
the West Wall at less than immense odds, and the 
orders to launch an Ardennes offensive imposed on 
the German High Command by Hitler. Of course, 
using them in the Campaign Game would give the 
Allies an easy win. 



38 

The Campaign Game needs no radical fix. It 
plays well and with a few minor exceptions (see 
II1.2, 111.3, 1V.4, and V.4 below) makes good 
sense. However, at the cost of some complexity, the 
following rules add significant realism and flavor to 
the Campaign Game and the scenarios. The reasons 
for most of them are self-evident, but I've put in a 
few sentences of explanation here and there to give 
some support to my changes. Several of these rules 
will alter play balance significantly if used alone. 
Taken all together they probably favor the Allies 
slightly. Pick a combination that seems to you to 
give appropriate complexity and balance. 

1. Stacking and ZOC 

1. Brigades and regiments count 1/2 division 
for stacking. 

2. One battalion-sized unit may be added free 
to any stack. Each additional battalion counts 1/2 
division. HQ's, flak, and security units are con- 
sidered battalion-size for stacking. 

Flak and security units relied on direct fire 
weapons, unlike artillery, and look up some space 
on the front lines. Unlimited stacking of HQ's en- 
courages using them in groups, which is not 
realistic. 

3. VS units are division size. RGR, CDO, 150 
SS, and artillery stack totally free. 

4. A stack of units that includes no divisions 
has no ZOC except the hex it occupies. 

It. Replacements 

1. Units wiih a battalion symbol, but not units 
that stack like battalions, cost only one replacement 
factor to rebuild from the dead pile. 

2. A brigade from the 79th Armored Division 
may be built with three British armored replace- 
ment factors if the division is out of play. The divi- 
sion may be built or reinforced normally if none oT 
its brigades is in play, but at double the usual cost in 
replacements. 

III. Supply, Sea Movement, and Rail Move- 
ment 

1. Armored battalions and all unarmored units 
oT less than division size, except HQ's, count 1/2 
division for supply, sea movement, and rail move- 
ment. Armored divisions count 1-1/2. RGR and 
CDO units still need no supplies. 

Remember that HQs represent air bases and 
supply networks as well as command personnel. 
Armored units require much more transport 
capacity and supplies Tor a given frontage in battle. 

2. The total number of divisions or equivalents 
using sea movement through one port or mulberry 
on one turn may not exceed the port's current 
supply capacity. 

3. A port may not be used for sea movement 
until the impulse after it is captured. It may be used 
for the SC immediately. 

4. A HQ moved by rail may not be used to trace 
TAC range the turn it moves by rail. It may be used 
to trace supply. 

5. Supply lines from supply sources to Allied 
HQs cannot be longer than ten hexes without suf- 
fering attenuation. Supply sources are Allied con- 
trolled ports, mulberries, and Allied HQs within ten 
hexes of a supply source. Note that this allows a 
chain of HQs, each ten hexes from the next, to get 
supplies any distance. Supply sources more than ten 
hexes from the HQ that is actually supplying com- 
bat units count only half the capacity of the port(s) 
toward the SC. For example, the Allies control all 
of the 19th Military District, have Devers at 
Perpignan and Patch at Cannes. The total port 
capacity is 18, but if 18 units are to be supplied, five 
divisions must be able to trace supply to Patch. 
Devers can only supply 14-1/2 units, including 
itself, since the five from Toulon and Nice must be 
halved before adding the 12 for Marseilles. Patch is 
supplied by Cannes. If Patch were at 032 instead, 



Toulon and Nice would be pari of the supply grid 
since Patch is now ten hexes from Devers and 18 
units could be supplied anywhere within the 19th 
Military District. 

This rule is not as messy as it sounds and it 
simulates the need for a transportation system from 
the ports to the front and the annoying problems of 
overlong supply lines so familiar to AFRIKA 
KORPS players. The German transportation 
system was set up before D-Day, so they are im- 
mune from this rule. 

6. Evacuated units (Rule 11. 4B) are eliminated 
and the number of steps they contain are added to 
the accumulated replacements. 

Such units would lose a lot of equipment and re- 
quire extensive rebuilding. 

7. A unit may obtain supplies in four ways: A, 
It can trace a five hex path to a HQ and thence to a 
supply source of sufficient capacity, B. No enemy 
unit is within five hexes and it can trace a supply line 
of unlimited length to a supply source. C. No enemy 
unit is within five hexes and it occupies a city or for- 
tification. D. It occupies a city or fortification and 
did not move or attack that turn . AH uni is unable to 
satisfy any of these four conditions areout of supply. 
Only units satisfying A or Bat the start of the player 
turn may lake replacements. Allied units using Bor 
C count double for the SC. 

This rule replaces rules 18.4, 18.6, and 31.13, 
clarifies "in supply" for replacement purposes and 
makes supply play a more equivalent role. 

8. On clear weather turns the Allies may supply 
one infantry division, or equivalent, by air. The 
unitts) do not count against the SC, nor must they 
satisfy any of III. 7 A-D. The supplied unit(s) may 
not move, attack or take replacements, and no 
airlift or paradrop is allowed that turn, 

IV. Paratroops, Rangers, and Commandoes 

1. German paratroops must roll twice on the 
Paratroop Drop Table. Losses are cumulative. 

2. No German paratroop unit lhat has ever 
taken replacements may drop. It may airlift. A divi- 
sion made by combining two droppable units may 
drop. 

German paradrop readiness was suspect at best 
even on D-Day. It got worse as time went on, 
especially with the addition of green recruits. 

3. Both sides may airlift, but not paradrop, in 
OV or OV* weather. 

4. Paradropped Allied units count towards the 
SC the turn after the drop. 

5. Allied paratroop brigades and regiments 
count 1/2 division for airlift and paradrop. The 
maximum distance between any two dropped units 
is still three hexes. 

6. For each stack containing a RGR or CDO 
unit attacking a doubled defender, the attacker may 
add + I to the die roll. 

7. When using a special ability, i.e. raiding, 
ovcrstacking, or adding one to the die roll, on at- 
tack, RGR or CDO units must take losses before 
regular units. If two or more abilities are used on 
the same impulse, the RGR and CDO units are lost 
unless the defender is eliminated. 

RGR and CDO units could be very effective in 
special situations, but often took crushing losses. 

8. Raiding or paradropping units release only 
the units in the district(s) they land in. The released 
units may move from then on, but must end each 
turn w-ithin their district until released for another 
reason. Raids or paradrops outside all military 
districts release all German units. 

The Germans didn't respond to the D-Day inva- 
sion. They certainly wouldn't to a mere raid. 

9. Invading RGR or CDO units count for ca- 
pacity, but may overslack. 



V. Air Missions 

1. The Germans may not cancel an Allied air 
mission that occurs totally outside German TAC 
range. An Allied ground support or bridge attack 
mission that is cancelled may still be used if no mis- 
sion of the same type is conducted in German TAC 
range lhat turn. The "cancelling" German aircraft 
is then not expended, and uses no oil. 

The Allies are nol allowed to use "cancelled" 
aircraft out of range and use "uncancelled" air- 
craft in range since this effectively reduces the 
number of missions the German may cancel. 

2. The Germans may not cancel any Allied air 
mission totally wiihin Allied TAC range nor use 
ground suppon, airlift or paradrop in Allied TAC 
range unless all Allied TAC on counterair are 
cancelled first. They need not cancel Allied 
counterair 10 perform any of these missions outside 
Allied TAC range. 

3. Half the uncancelled Allied TAC on 
counterair, rounded down, become straffers. 

This and the preceding rule make counterair an 
air superiority/interdiction mission instead of a 
CAP over army positions. Much oT the Allied air ef- 
fort was in fact devoted to harrassing the Luft- 
waffe, disrupting German movement and escorting 
important air missions. Only by combining them in 
one mission does the Allied player get enough 
return from them to use them consistently. 

4. The Germans do not lose unexpended air- 
craft at the end of each month. They may be saved 
indefinitely. The maximum available for each turn 
remains the same. 

The Germans often hoarded aircraft for grand 
gestures. They didn't ship unexpended aircraft to 
the Russian front on the first of each month. 

5. The Allied SAC available on non-clear 
weather turns before September IV may not be used 
for bridge attacks or carpel bombing. 

A summer storm might not prevent the SAC 
from causing general mayhem, but might very well 
obscure a small target area. 

6. TAC on railroad attack missions do not af- 
fect German rail moves which never enter TAC 
range, TAC may be pui on railroad attacks without 
SAC. 

7. An Allied unit on bridge attack may destroy 
the bridges on less than the whole river section. 
There may not be any gaps in the interdicted stretch 
and the exact hexsides affected must be specified 
before the Allied player begins moving. 

8. The German may place aircraft on the straf- 
ing, railway, German replacements, counterair and 
oil misssions but must wail until after the Allied 
player turn. Rule V.2 above still applies. 

VI. Miscellaneous 

1 . If the first invasion is on the Atlantic coast, 
both American and British units must land on the 
first impulse. 

The political pressure against a one country in- 
vasion was totally overwhelming. 

2. Two is added to the die roll for an attack 
against a city or fortification that includes the 
British 79th Armored Division, one if the 79th is at 
reduced strength. Similarly, each stack containing a 
brigade from the 79th receives a plus one in the 
same situations. Each stack containing a unit from 
the 79th attacking across a river is doubled, but only 
if the defender is doubled by the river. 

3. The Allies may move any units oTf the east 
edge. The units count double for the SC and must 
be able to trace a supply line from the exit hex to an 
Allied HQ, or Trom any east edge hex to an Allied 
controlled port if a HQ is exited. They may never 
reenter play. For each combat factor the Allies exit 
the Germans must move one factor off the east edge 
by normal or rail movement or by airlift in the ensu- 
ing player turn. The exited German units may 
reenter play like normal reinforcements if the cor- 
responding Allied factors are eliminated for lack of 



supply. Until exited Allied units arc matched, the 
German may not place reinforcements, except VS 
units, or replacements on the board (either may be 
used to match exited Allied units), or use off-board 
rail movement. One off-board German city is cap- 
tured at the end of each turn that exited Allied units 
remain unmatched. These cities may be counted 
toward the 15 required for victory unless all off- 
board Allied units are eliminated. 

These rules change the tactics of the game in 
several ways. In the "On to Berlin" scenario, the 
Allies should lightly screen St . Nazaire and Lorient , 
capture Dunkerquc, stabilize the front, and hang 
on to the "Bulge" victory cities at all costs. 
Strasbourg is sometimes lost, but the rest should be 
easy to hold. Offensives are necessary to breach the 
West Wall but should not be overused, since every 
unit used must do nothing for at least one turn. 
When launching an offensive, support it with all 
available aircraft. The Allies must launch as many 
attacks as possible, even if 1-1's must be used. An 
attack on Italy should be considered because it 
either stretches the German thin or gains two 
victory cities at little cost. 

The Germans should launch a major offensive 
in the Ardennes on the first turn. The best chance 
for a quick victory is the capture of Strasbourg and 
Luxembourg, but it is a faint one. Unless the 
Ardennes attack and an attack on the Allied salient 
north of Strasbourg go perfectly, the German does 
belter to defend and save counterattack strength for 
regaining key positions and eliminating Allied 
spearheads. 

In the Campaign Game the small units, especially 
the British armored brigades, Allied paratroop 
brigades and regiments, and the German bat- 
talions, can be used to create strong stacks instead 
of just serving as soak-off and delay units. 

RGR and CDO units are more powerful than 
before but also more fragile. They should be used 
sparingly and only for important positions. 

An early raid and/or paradrop in a district other 
than the one invaded becomes a more viable option. 
Toulon's U-Boat base must be captured before 
winter or the Americans will lose lots of replace- 
ments. A successful raid on it may mean that 
the second invasion may be moved from south 
France to a place closer to Germany. 

The British will do more fighting in cities and 
fortifications than before because of the new talents 
of the 79th Armored Division. It will often be ad- 
vantageous to send the British against key parts of 
the West Wall and fortified ports. Think ahead and 
keep the British infantry and the 79th unit as close 
to the next key city as possible. 

Allied TAG on counterair is now a powerful 
weapon, and will be a useful mission when the 
German has TAC available. Since uncancelled 
counterair is not wasted it is going to be chosen on 
many turns making German use of paratroops and 
ground support more difficult and expensive. The 
Allies do well to put two or four TAC on counterair 
during June to prevent German ground support and 
delay the arrival of the panzers to the beachhead. 
The Germans must be even more wary of defending 
with their backs to a river because they may be 
prevented from cancelling a vital bridge attack. VI 
attacks will also be harder to cancel, giving the 
British more armored replacements to spend on ex- 
pensive 79th Armor units. Early in a month it is 
sometimes a good ploy for the Germans to put no 
air units on the AMC before the Allied player 
moves, threatening a large commitment to ground 
support. 

Exiting Allied units can be the difference in a 
close game but will win Tew games by itself. It takes 
a long time to capture a significant number of off- 
board cities. A force of five strong divisions is prob- 

Continued on Page 43, Column 2 













STAFF BRIEFING 

AN INTERVIEW WITH ALAN R. MOON 

by Alan R. Moon 



Alan R. Moon 

Born: Somewhere in space, not too long ago 

PBM Experience: Never had any stamps 

Firsl Wanjame: CHUTES AND LADDERS 

FsvorHc Wargames: POND WAR. KRIEOSPEIL 

Favorite Non-Wargames: PIG MANIA, CANDYLAND, 

LEMONADE STAND 

Outside Interests; Elephant hunting, tricycle racing, singing in the 

choir 

Employed By AH: Maybe not after this 

Awards: Winner Of The Asylum's Bozo Look-a-like Contest (1 was 

really the first alternate, but the winner, Mick Uhl, turned down the 

honor) 

ARM: You probably don't remember me, but I 
talked to you at ORIGINS last year. 
ME: You're right. 

ARM: What? 

ME: I don't remember you. 

ARM: Well, I remember you and I remember how 
surprised 1 was when I found out you were Alan R. 
Moon because I thought you were going to be as 
ugly as the guy in THE ASYLUM picture. 
ME: Thanks a lot. I told Greenwood not to use 
that picture. 

ARM: Everytime I look at that picture I can't help 
but notice there is a dead eat on your bookshelf. 
Do you like animals? 

ME: Let's get on with the interview. No wonder 
everyone hates it when you interview them. 

ARM: Were you involved in the hobby before 

coming to work at AH? 

ME: Only as a gamer and a contributer to THE 

GENERAL. 

ARM: So how did an unknown bimbo like you get 
a job at AH? 

ME: Look who's calling who a bimbo. 1 made you 
what you are today and don't you forget it. Now 
what was the question. 

ARM: Why did AH hire you? 
ME: I'm glad you asked that question. There has 
been a rumor going around that my father paid 
Avalon Hill a large sum of money to hire me, and 
that he really pays my salary each week. I want 
everyone to know that this just isn't true. Avalon 
Hill hired me because they knew talent when they 
saw it. Besides, my father won't admit I'm his. 

ARM: When you were hired was it understood 
that you would take over as the editor of THE 
GENERAL someday? 
ME: Yes. 



ARM: So why aren't you editor? 

ME: Everytime I ask someone about that, they tell 

me that I need a little more experience. 

ARM: Did you mind moving to Baltimore? 
ME: Not really. The only thing that bothers me is 
all the roaches in my apartment. I've tried 
everything to get rid of them. One day I went out 
and bought a whole bunch of Roach Motels. The 
next morning all my towels were gone. 

ARM: When I think about Avalon Hill, I picture 
plush offices full of huge tables covered with 
games in progress. How close is this to what it's 
really like? 

ME: The Avalon Hill offices have almost as many 
roaches as my apartment. 1 was up in Frank Davis* 
office last week talking with Frank and Joe 
Balkowski. There were several dozen dead bugs on 
the floor. Joe said they'd died of boredom. 

ARM: Do you have your own office too? 
ME: Sort of. I'm in a room with the coffee 
machine, a whole bunch of file cabinets, and all 
the office supplies. The building our offices arc in 
used to be a medical building. The plate on my 
door says "Eurology". 

ARM: Do you enjoy your work? 

ME: I enjoy everything except doing those dumb 

interviews for THE GENERAL. 

ARM: Why don't you enjoy them? 
ME: Because the people 1 have to interview are 
such potatoheads. They never know what to say, 
and what they do say is so boring. 

ARM: Can you tell us a little about the newly 
released DOWN WITH THE KING? 
ME: Well 

ARM: Don't you think it was a little much to name 
one of the characters in the game Prince Alan? 
ME: But my girlfriend is always saying what a 
prince of a guy I am. 

ARM: What games are you working on now? 
ME: Well my main project is another card game 
called CABBAGE. It's a takeoff on Cribbage. The 
cards are all vegetables. There are five colors or 
suits which I call gardens. The crib is called the 
patch. Instead of giving the guy a "go", you give 
him a tomato. 

Continued on Page 43, Column 3 



40 



BRITISH STRATEGY IN WAR AT SEA 

or Six Ways to Domination of the European Theatre by Ray Freeman 



Despite its reputation as a game where luck 
plays a substantial role in determining the outcome, 
WAR AT SEA gets a lot of play. It is easy to learn, a 
lot of fun, and doesn't take a long time to play. 
Thus it is usually easier to find opponents for WAS 
than just about any other wargame. ! do prefer 
VITP, the sister game, as it is much more complex 
and battles tend lobe less luck dependent, but WAS 
is better for gaining a mastery of the strategy and 
tactics of the rules systems common to both. 

I prefer to play the Allies in WAS, especially 
when using the tournament rules for American ship 
entry (strongly recommended). I consider a POC tie 
to be a draw, however. Draws mess up pairings in a 
single elimination tournament , so the rule is valid in 
that situation. But as in chess, when both sides play 
well a draw is a valid result, and should be possible 
in a non-tourncy situation. 

This article explores possible opening strategies 
for British play, and showcases a few variations 
which have not received much coverage in past 
GENERAL articles. The purpose is to provide the 
Allied player with several strategic weapons so as to 
keep his Axis opponents guessing as to which one 
they will face. In my opinion this is a very important 
psychological weapon. So much for preliminaries. 
Let's look at the possibilities open to the Allies. 

GENERAL ALLIED STRATEGY 

There are two "grand strategies" that the Allied 
player may employ: The Northern strategy, where 
the Allies fight mainly for the Barents, and the 
Southern strategy which contests the Mediterra- 
nean. Both are viable. Fighting for both at the same 
time is suicidal except under favorable cir- 
cumstances on turn 4 or later. 

With regard to proper ship allocation to sea 
areas, the Allied player should strive to make the 
German choices as to battle location as difficult as 
possible. This forces the Axis player to give battle at 
nearly even odds. Of course some areas are more 
important than others and thus should be made 
slightly stronger than the less important areas. In 
general, the areas are, in order of importance North 
Sea, Barents and Med., S. Atlantic, N, Atlantic. 

The basic British strategy is twofold: limit Axis 
mobility and sink enemy ships. The Axis strives to 
increase or maintain mobility (threats) and limit his 
own losses, particularly German losses. Thus unless 
the Axis can gain superior mobility by combat with 
acceptable losses, he is crazy to do other than to hit 
the area which offers the best odds. This knowledge 
is a great help to the British. It's OK to lose a battle 
or two in the early going as long as you can sink 
some Germans and you don't give much away in 
terms of position. 

THE NORTHERN STRATEGIES 

Currently my favorite. 1 started with this 
approach when I was learning the game, adopted 
the Southern approach later, but returned to the 
North when I worked out my "Go for Four" open- 
ing setup. Using this grand strategy the British can 
seek to control the Barents on Turn 1, 2, or 3. 

BARENTS ON 3 

Beginners usually hold the Atlantic and North 
Sea on turns 1 and 2, and all four areas (with a token 
force in the N. Atlantic) on turn 3. This gives them 
the last chance to win the game although the final 
score is usually close. Advantages include preserva- 
tion of the fleet, speed roll failures docking at 
Murmansk, and virtual elimination of the oiler 



threat. On the negative side, it will cause minimal 
Axis casualties on the first three t urns and does little 
to limit Axis mobility. A powerful German fleet in 
France on turn 4 causes severe headaches for the 
Allies if the U-boats were used to break control of 
the North Sea or S. Atlantic on turn 3. This is the 
most conservative Allied opening strategy. 

BARENTS ON 2 

Same as above, but the Allies sail to the Barems 
on turn 2 a la the "Montgomery at Sea" strategy 
given in Vol. 16 no. 5 of the GENERAL. This ap- 
proach is less conservative than ' 'Barents on 3 " and 
thus is probably better. It still leaves a lot to be 
desired as attrition of the Germans on the first two 
turns is virtually non-existent. I do not like Mr. 
Pclliccia's turn 2 setup due to its weakness in the S. 
Atlantic. I suggest stripping four cruisers from the 
Barents and sending Courageous to the North Sea. 
This leaves Eagle, five CAs, and one BB for the 
Atlantic. Put the Eagle and the five cruisers in the S. 
Atlantic and a 4-4-3 in the N. Atlantic. At least the 
BB up north has a decent chance of taking a pocket 
battleship with it. Barring disasterous British speed 
rolls, the Axis will have to allow the blockade of 
Germany. 

BARENTS ON 1 

This is it, my current favorite. The Germans 
must fight on turn 1 or they get blockaded and 
LOSE POC! Naturally this strategy is more 
dependent on luck than the previous two, but it is 
almost guaranteed to cause early German losses, 
which should be the primary British aim in this 
game. (Table 1.) 

Table t. "Go For Four" Ship Di.spayliPH5 



Barents 
North Sea 
N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 



447,336x2, 117x8,027' 
444x5, 0I6 J x2 
443x3 
553x2,443x2, 124' 



The North Sea and the Barents are made very 
strong so as to discourage battle. The Germans will 
usually go to the N. Atlantic as it is the weakest 
area. If they go to the S. Atlantic, blast the German 
ships and ignore the Italian cruisers . . . they can't 
oil. Also, you can abandon the Barents on turn 2 
and force a major battle elsewhere unless the entire 
Axis fleet sails to the Med (never to return). With 
several ships in South America the Axis can 't sit and 
wait, the POC losses will kill them. 

Taking into account airstrikes and ignoring the 
U-boats, the fuzzy wuzzy (see Richard Hamblen's 
article in Vol. 13 No. 3) battle/kill ratios are given 
in Table 2. 

Tabti 1. "Go tor Four" Built/Kill Ratios 



Barents 
North Sea 
N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 



1.17/1.08 
1.03/1.89 
0.58/1. 00 
0.71/1.42 



These figures assume that the Baltic is aban- 
doned, the Italian cruisers sail, that one pocket 
battleship will not make an Atlantic speed roll, and 
that both British battlecruisers make their speed 
rolls. But what if those BCs don't make it you cry!? 
There is only a 2.8% chance of both not making sta- 
tion. If that bothers you, give up wargaming for 
chess or go. Those two ships will get there 69.4% of 
the time. What about the 3 out of 10 games that at 
least one doesn't make it? Not a disaster. The 



battle/kill ratio will be 0.99/0.85 if only one BC 
makes station. This battle is a toss-up and the 
German must avoid even battles during the first few 
turns in order to maintain the power of his threats. 
If the Germans attack and the first round of battle 
goes poorly, consider running. Your ships are very 
fast. 

True, there are two carriers which could be 
bagged in the North Sea, but the British are 
guaranteed 24 shots at the Germans, the battle is 
even, and the kill point ratio is awesome. For those 
that feel lucky and fear for the CVs, strip a 117 from 
the Barents force. 

The Atlantic is another story. Both areas are 
much weaker than the "blockade" seas. Since the 
S. Atlantic is strategically more important due to 
the Italians and oiler rule, it is made the stronger of 
the two. The Axis cannot contest both with surface 
ships. Either battle will be won by the Axis, but it 
will cost him some ships. If he goes to the S. Atlan- 
tic, make the largest German ships priority targets, 
I T the Germans can only oil one or t wo cruisers, that 
threat will be minimal on turn 2. Abandon the 
Barents and load up the other three areas. Using 
this reaction and having reasonable luck in the turn 
1 battle will cause your Axis opponent to avoid the 
S. Atlantic like the plague in future games. 

In the N. Atlantic we have our "sacrifice". My 
defense for this setup is that it offers as many shots 
as the 553x2,124' disposition using the "Mediterra- 
nean Strategy" (see Vol. 17 No, I) and gives up less 
valuable ships. You may have to face an extra 
German ship however. If the German comes here 
don't fire at the 357s. You want to sink German 
ships, not disable them. 

I have not considered U-boats because I do not 
believe that the German can afford to use them tac- 
tically in the early turns. Obviously they are of no 
use in the Barents and North Sea, and placing them 
in the S. Atlantic is very risky. They aren't needed in 
the N. Atlantic, and besides, if two or more are lost 
due to terrible luck (an 8.3% chance with three 
ASW), there won't be enough subs to break the 
blockade before turn 5. It happened to me. 

It is interesting to consider changing the place- 
ment of Nelson and Rodney, together or individ- 
ually , to any of the three areas adjacent to England . 
If you're paranoid about the North Sea, put them 
there. The Germans won't touch it. Putting them 
both in the N. Atlantic makes the battle/kill ratios 
almost identical in the Atlantic areas. One to N. 
Atlantic and one to S. Atlantic looks nice statis- 
tically, but my preference is to keep them together. 
You can almost count on having one of them 
around for the second round of combat. 

I always assume that the Axis will take the battle 
that gives them the best odds, and for them to do 
otherwise, except for strategic reasons, is foolish. 
Assume that the Germans go for the N. Atlantic. 
Unless you've been unlucky, the German should be 
able to oil only three ships. Pray for at least one six 
on his oiler rolls. If he doesn't try to oil all of his 
ships, celebrate! If three or more Germans oil, it 
gets sticky on turn 2. Try to hold all four areas 
again. If you can't afford more than two 443s in the 
N. Atlantic, so be it. They will cause additional 
casualties against a weaker German force, and the 
oiler threat will be greatly diminished. Remember 
that the U-boats may hit the weakest area on turn 2. 
You should abandon the Barents only if you had 
very bad luck on turn 1. Scrimp here and there, 
figure the odds carefully, it can be done! If the 
German has to fight on turn 2 your chances for ad- 



41 



ditional atirition are good. That is the goal of this 
strategy, early German losses coupled with poor 
Axis mobility. Although the "Go for Four" open- 
ing is extremely aggressive, the following setup is 
even more so. 

BARENTS ON I (Greenwood) 

The "Go for Four" strategy is not particularly 
original. Don Greenwood, as the Series Replay 
commentator in Vol. 13, No. 4, recommended the 
British setup in the Barents. He also suggested plac- 
ing four BBs and one CV in each of the remaining 
three areas (both 553s in N.A. and Eagle in S.A.). 
His setup should cause more German casualties but 
is likely to cost a carrier, and the blockade can be 
broken by hitting the North Sea. The S. Atlantic is 
inviting, but it is stronger than IheN. Atlantic in the 
"Go for Four" setup. The "weakness" in Don's 
setup is the North Sea. It's no fun to trade shots 
with the British 5s, but all the German ships can gel 
there. Unfortunately for the German, he can expect 
to enter battle with both of his BCs intact only 
44,4% of the time. Both get hit or disabled by 
bombs one out of every nine games. It is extremely 
risky to commit U-boats against this opening. 

Don's suggestion creates a very tough decision 
for the Axis player. For comparative purposes the 
fuzzy wuzzy ratios for this opening are given in 
Table 3. By the way, in all of my calculations 1 have 
averaged the fuzzy wuzzy values of the German 
ships between their undamaged and damaged con- 
ditions (see Vol. 13,No. 3), 

lalilc J. Barents on 1 ( ( '. tec n wood ) Bank Kill Hallos 



Tunic 4. Radical Med Shi|] t>i%po$ilioii.-i 



Barents 

North Sea 
N. Atlantic 
S.Atlantic 



1.17/1.08 
0.79/1.57 
0.88/1.51 
0.67/1.21 



The German should try his luck in the S. Atlan- 
tic or blow open the North Sea for Bismarck, 
Eugen, and the survivors of turn 1. The N. Atlantic 
should be avoided. The Barents is more tempting 
here if a British speed roll is missed due to its low kill 
point ratio and the quality of the English ships. 

THE SOUTHERN STRATEGIES 

Here the British emphasis is on control of the 
Mediterranean rather than the Barents. Despite the 
fact that this gets the Italian battleships into the 
game, it is just as good as the Northern strategy. 

CONVENTIONAL MEDITERRANEAN 

The first Southern strategy is the "conven- 
tional" approach suggested, once again, by Don 
Greenwood in his neutral commentary on the SR in 
Vol. 17, No. 1 of the GENERAL. I label it conven- 
tional because the British force compositions (par- 
ticularly in the Med) contain a mixture of both BBs 
and CAs. This is a very good opening. For a time I 
did not believe that it could be improved upon when 
the decision had been made to go South. 

The Med strategy is solid despite its seeming 
contradictions, and should be in the repetoire of 
every competent WAS player. Its advantages in- 
clude the blockade of the Italian cruisers and a 
defection roll on turn 8. The POC tradeoffs are ac- 
ceptable. The problems are that the Germans are 
allowed more freedom, adequate convoy support 
may not be available if the Eytiesget lucky, and oil- 
ing ships can play havoc in the Med on turn 2. The 
Italians may not sail on turn I in order to take max- 
imum advantage of the oilers on turn 2. It's a matter 
of mood. If 1 don't "Go for Four", 1 usually adopt 
the Conventional Med strategy. 

RADICAL MEDITERRANEAN 

Having decided on the "perfection" of the Con- 
ventional Med strategy, imagine my surprise when 
the following beauty appeared on the blue waters of 
my board. 



Mediterranean 
North Sea 
N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 



553x2, 443x5 

447, 336x2, 1 17x4, 027', 016= 

444x3 

444x2, 117x4,016% 124' 



I also call this the "hang ten" strategy as it puts 
10 of the old British BBs in places where they arc 
likely to do battle on turn 1 (a nice touch!). The 
disadvantages of this opening are that the fuzzy 
wuzzy ratios are not as evenly distributed as in the 
conventional setup, and the force in the Med is at a 
disadvantage due to the three extra Italian ships. If 
the battle in the Med goes badly, the British can't 
outrun the Italians which could be very painful for 
Mr. Churchill. This opening does not offer a carrier 
as bait. The S, Atlantic is more tempting than in 
Greenwood's Med setup, but the battle is close 
enough to turn into a debacle for the Axis. I have 
seen the Axis go there twice. They regretted it both 
times. The Med is easily reinforced on turn 2 as the 
Ark Royal and cruisers are in fairly safe areas. See 
table 5 for a comparison of the two Southern 
strategies. 

Table S, Ctmvgntiunat ana Radical Med Bat Ik /Kill Ratio* 



Area 

Mediterranean 
North Sea 
N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 



Convention a 

1.01/1.13 
0.89/1.19 
0.59/1.00 
0.68/1.04 



Radical 

0.87/1.20 
1.06/1.14 
0.58/1.00 
0.73/0.86 



The Radical Med opening is the creation of Bill 
Larsen, a lieutenant commander in the USN from 
Raleigh, NC. Bill is probaby the best WAS oppo- 
nent that I have faced. I still consider the Conven- 
tional Med strategy to be preferable to the Radical 
due to the overall fuzzy wuzzy ratios and better ship 



mix in the four areas. However, the Radical Med 
setup oTfers a distinct change of pace and its value 
as a reasonably sound psychological shocker should 
not be underestimated. 



CLOSING REMARKS 

That concludes our survey of WAS openings. 
All are viable, but none are carved in stone. Feel 
free to vary at will. Which one is best? It's a matter 
of taste. You should try all of them several limes 
each prior to making any limiting decisions. 

The readership may have concluded that 1 am a 
fuzzy wuzzy fanatic. I am (sorry Alan, it's not 
dead), but I look at other things too when consider- 
ing my moves. One characteristic of players that I 
have discovered is a tendency not to work (think) as 
hard during the middle game. Don't let up! With a 
little luck, a lost game of WAR AT SEA can be 
turned into a win by a sharp player. Once you have 
the Axis player boxed for shipment, make sure he 
doesn't escape due to a sloppy play on your part. 
Any blockade can be broken by seven U-boats, and 
you know that he'll be comin' on the next turn. 
Finally remember to sink German ships and limit 
their mobility. That is the path to winning Allied 
play in WAR AT SEA. 

I would like to thank all of the authors and 
players whose ideas 1 have drawn upon, especially 
Keith Rosemond. Between us we have probably 
sunk (and lost) more tonnage than has gone down 
since navigation first developed a history. 

Comments and/or questions should be directed 
to Ray Freeman, 914 W. Markham Ave., Durham, 
NC 27701 . Those expecting a reply should include a 
stamped, self-addressed envelope. . 

ft 



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42 



BACK TO BASICS 

BASIC GERMAN ALTERNATIVES IN AFRIKA KORPS by 



Rob Bey ma 



AFRIKA KORPS has remained a popular game 
over the years. Ii is simple and played often at con- 
vention tournaments, particularly the Avalori Hill 
500 at Origins. The Germans are a popular choice 
but because of [he Rommel syndrome and because 
they normally dictate the tempo of the game. The 
German player makes several important decisions 
during the course of the game. Most of these center 
around the pivotal fortress city of Tobruch. The 
designer of AFRIKA KORPS certainly wanted to 
emphasize the importance of Tobruch in the North 
African campaign. Realistically, the length of the 
German supply line without Tobruck is very long. 
Not so realistically, the ratio of British to German 
replacements is reduced from 3-1 to l-l if the Ger- 
mans capture Tobruch. 

The German offensive sets out for Tobruch in 
April 1941 . Normally the Italians go by way of the 
Benghasi coastal road and the armor force overland 
via M sus. A common variation is to send some or all 
of the 21st Panzer around the escarpments to the 
south of Tobruch. The Germans normally attack 
the escarpments west of Tobruch at 3-1 or4-l on the 
May 1 turn. The arrival of the 15th Panzer will 
enable the Germans to assault the escarpments near 
Tobruch on May 2. An attack on Tobruch is feasi- 
ble by June. Sometimes good British play will pre- 
vent agood attack on Tobruch until after the arrival 
of the British June reinforcements. Only a real 
novice will fail to bottle up the British in Tobruch 
by mid June. 

A favorite tactic is to send the 21st Panzer Recce 
unit out Into the desert southeast of Tobruch. 
Sometimes Rommel accompanies the Recce unit in 
order to provide more mobility. If the British player 
is careless the Recce unit is capable of capturing the 
British home base in two turns. It is amazing the 
number of players that gel burned by this 
maneuver, particularly in tournaments. Even if the 
British player does not fall for this ploy the threat to 
his southern (lank will force the deployment of four 
or five l-6s to contain the Recce unit. 

Once the British have been driven back into 
Tobruch the German player must make his, first big 
decision of the game. He must cither attack 
Tobruch or bypass it and drive on the British home 
base. There are essentially two ways to attack 
Tobruch. 



1-1/2-1: A lot of players in a hurry to finish the 
game quickly employ this option. It makes for a real 
crap shoot. The German player makes one big at- 
tack against Tobruch at the best odds possible. 
Chart 1 summarizes the expected losses and the pro- 
bability of taking Tobruch. This option is recom- 
mended for players arriving at Tobruch late and 
with significant casualties. An exchange normally 
leaves the Germans loo weak to continue the offen- 
sive until winter. 

■ 




Diagram I: The Drive to Tobruch. It is the first May [urn and the 
Germans throw a 4-1 at the first Allied line of defense. 



3-1: The German player makes a series of 3-1 + 
attacks against one British unit while soaking oTf 
against the rest. This tactic will eventually lake 
Tobruch if the Germans can avoid costly ex- 
changes. A variation of this is to attack two British 
units at 1-2 and the other at 3-1 or better. If a T or 
'2' can be attained on the 1-2 Tobruch will fall. 

The other option is to bypass Tobruch and head 
for the British home base. Some Italian infantry 
must be left behind to lay siege to Tobruch. The 
main panzer force should drive down the coast road 
eliminating British delay units as they go. The first 
major resistance will normally be encountered near 
El Alamein. The strong German panzer units can be 



used to attrition the British army as long as the sup- 
ply units keep arriving at the front. If the British 
home base can be captured the Germans have prob- 
ably won the game. If not, the Germans must nor- 
mally retreat on November I when the British rein- 
forcements arrive. 

The Germans usually fall back to near the 
Libya-Egyptian border where they can join their 
November reinforcements and additional supply 
units. At this point time starts working against the 
Germans. They must take Tobruch by March or 
they will be on the short end of a 3 to I replacement 
rate. (Historically, the ratio of British to German 
replacements was about 2 to 1. This increased to 
about 3 to i after June 1942.} 




Diagram 2: Barring supply problems the second May turn usually 
results in an assault on the escarpment around Tobruch. Here [he 
Germa u player opts fur a 6- 1 vs 41 / 1 1 and a 7- 1 vs 4 1 /5 whi le soaking- 
ofral 1-6 vs 2/ J, 9A/20 and at 1-3 4t/7 and 22nd Gds. 

At this point in the game the Germans may be in 
a position to take a calculated risk. If the kill ratio 
thus far is favorable the Germans will be able to af- 
ford an exchange against Tobruch and still have a 
reasonable chance of winning. Chart 2 shows the 
probability analysis of a pair of l-l attacks on 
Tobruch. It is assumed that the Germans have suffi- 
cient factors for two 1-1 attacks. Note that an AE 
result followed by a DE result is essentially 
equivalent to an EX result initially. AR results are 
neglected for purposes of this calculation. 

Given a favorable kill ratio, the Germans have 
about a 76% chance of emerging from the attack on 
Tobruch with a good chance of winning the game. 
If Tobruch is not attacked the Germans will lose 



Diagram 3: Capturing the British Home Base, [f the German can obtain this position by May I and 
cast, the Home Base will tall as Itic Potash Brigade can only reach J4° on the Allied May II [urn. 




43 



anyway. A 3-1 and soakoff strategy has little prom- 
ise at this point. Time, the British replacement rate, 
and a hostile army on your eastern flank are work- 
ing against you. 

Once Tobruch has been captured the entire Ger- 
man army is free to drive eastward to the British 
liome base. There should not be any supply prob- 
lems at this point. Once the British are bottled up 
en the east end of the board the German armor can 
bludgeon its way to the British home base. Only 
some DE results on low odds attacks can save the 
game for the British. 

Char) 1 INITIAL ATTACK ON TOBRUCH 

Percentages based on a defense in Tobruch consisting of 
otic 4-4-7 and two 2-2-6s. The Axis attack force consists of 
IS factors so that the extra two factors which would survive 
an exchange can advance into Tobruch. 





Expected 


Expected 


Probability 


A Hack 


Axis 


Allied 


of taking 


Odds 


Losses 


Losses 


Tobruch 


1-1 


8.7 


4.0 


.50 


2-1 


10.7 


5.3 


.67 


3-1 & 1-2 


4.7 


5.3 


.33 



Chart 2 A PAIR OF 1-1 ATTACKS ON 
TOBRUCH 

Percentages based on a defense of three 4-4-7s. 



Chart 3 EXPECTED SUPPLY SITUATION 

Plus or Minus one supply unit is statistically normal for 
each period. 



Period 



Expected Number 
of Supply Units 



April 1941-June 1941 4.3 

July 1941-October 1941 4.0 

November 1941-February 1942 6.7 

The luck of the supply rolls may influence the 
German strategy. Bad luck early in the game may 
make it difficult getting to Tobruch. LackoTsupply 
makes the Tobruch bypass option a lot less attrac- 
tive. In that case a 1-1 on Tobruch might be your 
best chance oT winning. On the other hand, a "hot" 
supply die will give the Germans all of the supply 
they need for any course of action. In this case the 
German player may be a little reluctant to risk 
everything on one attack so early in the game. Chart 
3 shows the expected number of German supply 
units during certain segments of the game. It does 
not take into account supply units lost because the 
Germans already have all three supply units on the 
board. 



Chart 4 
TABLE 

Period 



VARIANT HISTORICAL SUPPLY 

Die Roll Needed 
to Sink Supply 



April 1941-June 1941 1,2 

July 1941-October 1941 1,2,3 
November 1941-March 1942 1 

April 1942-June 1942 1,2,3 

July 1942-October 1942 1, 2, 3, 4 

A ERIK A KORPS gives the Germans a 
favorable supply situation from November 1941 to 
October 1942. Historically, this was not the case, 
Kesselring's air wing pounded Malta during the 
winter of 1942. German supply deliveries increased 
during this period. However, during the summer of 
1942 German attention was drawn to Stalingrad 
and the Caucasus. German supply slacked off as the 



summer went on. By September the AfrikaKorpsat 
El Alamein was critically short of supplies and 
replacements. Chart 4 shows a more realistic supply 
table for the North African campaign. 

Occasionally the Germans capture the British 
home base before they capture Tobruch. Do not 
celebrate yet because the game isn't over. The Ger- 
man army must still successfully assault Tobruch. 
There are several ways of attacking Tobruch at this 
point, 

3-1: The Germans attack at 3-1 with soakoffs. 
They plan to kill the large British units and exhaust 
the British replacements before the German army 
itself is exhausted. 

2-1: There are not normally enough large factor 
units to get a single 2-1 attack. 

/-/.'The Germans should have sufficient factors 
remaining to get two, maybe three, 1-1 attacks 
before the end of" the game. Chart 5 shows the 
cumulative probability of taking Tobruch with 
multiple 1-1 attacks. The probability of ARs can be 
neglected until the last few turns of the game. Suffi- 
cient forces should remain in defensive positions to 
prevent a British breakout. 



CRETE , . . Continued from Page 35 



Chart 5 MULTIPLE 1- 
TOBRUCH 

Number of Attacks 



ATTACKS ON 

Probability of 
Taking Tobruch 







Axis 


Allied 


1 


Results 


Probability 


Losses 


Losses 


2 


DE 


.40 





12 


3 


EX 


.20 


24 


12 




AE&DE 


.16 


26 


12 


A rel 


AE&EX 


.08 


50 


12 


system hi 


AE&AE 


.16 


52 





plav thro 



.600 
.840 
.936 



A relatively simple and fast moving game 
system has made AFRICA KORPS a fun game to 
play through the years. Despite a high luck factor 
AFRIKA KORPS continues to be a popular game. 
The German player can increase his chances by con- 
sidering and exercising all of his available options. 
In certain situations a series of low odds attacks 
may offer the German player the best chance of 
winning. If all other alternatives fail the German 
player can usually go back to Tobruch and lake his 
1-1 . Well played, the Germans have the advantage. 
Just don't forget to make sacrifices to the great sup- 
plv god before you start. , 

FORTRESS EUROPA. . .Continued from Page 39 

ably worth more on the board than off it, even if it 
cannot be matched. The threat is useful, and forces 
the German to maintain reserves to prevent one 
exited unit coupled with heavy railway attacks from 
capturing several cities very cheaply. 

The ten hex supply line rule will cause the Allies 
headaches. Ports like Marseilles and Cherbourg 
lose much of their value because they require a lot 
of HQ's to keep them functioning at full effec- 
tiveness, and they have little effect on the front for 
several weeks after being captured by a raid or the 
second invasion. Key HQ's in supply chains become 
ideal targets for German paratroops. They should 
be guarded, especially since a lone HQ no longer 
has a zone of control. The Allies may need nearly 
every HQ they have to supply the battle for the West 
Wall. They can ill afford to lose one. 

I think you will find that these rules increase 
your enjoyment of FORTRESS EUROPA, The 
"On to Berlin" scenario is now a close, tense strug- 
gle that requires both sides to attack to win. In the 
campaign game, there are more tough decisions to 
be made since many of the standard tactics now 
have added restrictions or tempting alternatives. 
The air game has more suspense now that the 
German can wait longer to commit the Luftwaffe. 
The slacking and special forces rules give more in- 
dividual character to different types of units, finally, 
the rule for exiting Allied units allows you to truly 
go on to Berlin. . 



To sum up your evacuation chances let's go 
back to Table t . Don'l look to gel anything out of 
the Maleme sector. In the Suda area between the 
H.Q.'sand the civilians try to bring about 35 points 
out. Watch the stacking value of those workers. 
Protect the ones that have less than 3 over the 
others. You can gel a lot of points out through the 
port with them. Your chances of getting combat 
units out of this sector are poor. They will be needed 
to protect any evacuation. This is particularly true 
if you have to go out the long way by road. The re- 
maining civilians and H.Q.'s from the other two 
sectors will give us another 20 points. You can see 
now why 1 said that in most games for the Allied 
player to reach his evacuation goal he will need to 
pull out combat forces. The Heraklion forces can 
best provide this margin. 15 evacuation points of 
combat units can get out through the port if you still 
have the dock workers to help load. 

If you have been paying attention you'll see that 
we are still ten points short. Well, you have one 
truck unit. You also have a H.Q. unit in the Retimo 
section. If you put ihetwo logether and head for the 
hills as soon as the last parachute reaches the 
ground, you should be able to slip out through the 
road to the south while the two forces battle it out. 
If the German wants to waste a reinforcement drop 
just to stop them that should make another sector 
easier. If he sends some combat units to lake care of 
him that's six attack factors out of his 25 if he 
doesn't want to be all day at it. Remember to 
unload the H.Q. when you get to rough terrain. 
Also, the truck unit may not enter the Georgeopolis 
sector until turn eight. You could start him at V56 
but then your H.Q. will take a lot longer to reach 
him if you want him to help out on the drop lurn. 
In closing, 1 would like to add a personal word. 
When AIR ASSAULT ON CRETE first came to 
my attention 1 quickly grew tired of it. Not because 
it wasn't a good game but rather because of the need 
to be constantly Hipping my units over as the Allied 
player to see what they were. After discovering the 
game made an excellent PBM game ! learned the 
finer points and really enjoy the contest of wits. In 
that respect it's a lot like MIDWA Y. A battle to 
outguess your opponent while still requiring the 
proper handling of combat. A game with no perfect 
plan. Your strategy will work in direct proportion 
to how well your opponent's does not. 



ft 



ASYLUM . . . Continued from Page 39 

ARM: It sounds great. 
ME: And it's non- fattening, 

ARM: Do you have a favorite AH moment? 
ME: I guess one of my favorites was when an effi- 
ciency expert was brought in last year to make 
recommendations on how to improve productivity. 
After five weeks, he made two suggestions. One, 
put Tom Shaw's and Don Greenwood's desks back 
to back, and two, get a new mailbox that has ver- 
tical dividers instead of horizontal ones. Six 
months later he called to ask if there had been an 
increase in productivity. 

ARM: What does the future hold for you? 
ME: Well, I'd like to stay in the hobby for a few 
years and then retire, Tom Shaw told me that when 
he retires he's going to build a home for retired 
game designers. He has a great offer on a couple of 
acres in Greenland. He's been going to college and 
taking courses in Moose Calls and Seal Hunting. 

ARM: Sounds kind of deserted. 

ME: Actually, I think all the sand is covered by 

snow. 

ARM: Any last words? 
ME: Hi mom! 



ft 



44 




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AMERICAN EXPRESS 

EE 



ExpfrahOTi Daie_ 



Don, 

Thank you Tor printing mv Tobruk article in 
Vol. IS. No. 1. 

Regarding the article, there are two correc- 
tion* worth noting. The weapon lethality changes 
thai arc untitled, and sit below the PzJiw III) 
revisions, should refer Lo [he Crusader tank. 

Secondly, the angle in Figure I should have 
been 30 degrees. My mistake. 

If I may* there are two other issues regarding 
Tobruk lhat are worth mentioning. WhiJe ARCS 
rounds did have a high muzzle velocity, they were 
not very accurate. APCR rounds thai emerged 
from the barrel had a high speed t but were very 
light (less than two pounds) and most unstable 
{due to the irregular shape). The result was lhat 
ihey were ineffective except at close range, due to 
"wabbling" of [he shell during flight. 

The second item is the lethality of light shells. 
To assume lhat a from or Hank penetration by 
J" mm shells w always $ kill runs contrary to logic 
and battlefield histories. A 17 or 40mm shel] 
weighs [ess than two pounds, and there is an awful 
lot of empty space in a tank where a small shell 
could dissipate itself. In fact, one Valentine in 
North Africa suffered fifteen flank penetrations 
by a SQrnm shell (which weighs six pounds) before 
it was put '.-.!' of action. 

As a result of the above issues, iwo additional 
rule modifications are proposed: 

1. APCRsbcllshavea maximum range of 10 
hexes (750 meters), and -1 is added to the To Hit 
die rolls, 

2. When shells below 75mm score a "K" 
lesul t , t he follow in g d ice scores wit h I wo six-sided 
dice result in no damage; 

No Damage 
Can Size Scores Noics 



Letters to the Editor 



EMOmm 

«-J7{6 PDRJmm 



9-12 
10-12 



Includes 
ATR 



Rolls below Lhc given range result in a normal 
"K" rfcsuls. 

Lomn Bird 
Mechanicviile. N.Y. 



***** 



Dear Mr. Greenwood: 

1 had been a wailing ihe release of THE 
GUNS OF A UGUST for some time, and being, I 
believe, mote interested in the Great War than 
many gamers, I was very pleased with what I 
found. It is the first really good strategic simula- 
tion of the First World War {there have been so 
few of them) and should become fairly popular in 
the future if gamers can overcome their fears of 
itmulaling an historically static war. 

Now thai I have given the game itsdue praise, 
1 have a few humble suggestions to make concern- 
ing ihc rules. My suggestions, involve, perhaps 
unfortunately for me with regards to you, 
historical accuracy to a great degree. I know, I 
know, I've heard it many times before , , , 
Avalon Hill is more concerned wiih gaming values 
and payability lhan with historicity. However, 
ihc suggestions for variants lhat I wish to make 
would have littlc H if any affect on payability. 
They would simply promote a greater degree of 
information thai a gamer can obtain from the 
game ilscIT 

I ant a rabid historian, a year away from my 
B r A., and my first few suggestions deal with that 
subject: 

L) ARMED FORCES OF CONQUERED 
NATIONS: Rule 7.0 states thai if all of the cities 
of a nation are occupied by the enemy al the end 
of a turn, then thai nation is considered CUM*- 
quered and all of its units are removed immediately 
and permanently from play. While ihis rule 
should certainly apply to such hopeless losers as 
Russia, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Turkey, it defies 
the historical tenacity of several oi her nations thai 
were conquered d u ri ng t he course of the war. Any 
surviving forces of Belgium. Serbia, and/or 
Montenegro should be allowed to Tight on IF 
AND ONLY IF I hey are able to iracc a normal 
line of supply I o an Allied supply source. Needless 
to say, these nations still lose their replacement 
rapacities and any accumulated points, and if the 
surviving units arc destroyed, they may not be 
replaced. 

2.) MONTENEGRO: The scenario setup 
chari lists Montenegro as Neutral al the stan of 
the game in 1 914, and simply has no other listing 
for this nation, II is conceivable therefore lhat the 
tiny Mountaineer Kingdom could be ignored 
completely and remain ncuiral for the entire war. 
This docs not accurately reflect [he Balkan situa- 
tion of 1914, Montenegro sympathized from the 
beginning with iheir fellow South Slavs in Serbia, 
and of its own volition it entered Ihe war on the 



Allied side August 10, 1914, declaring war on Ger- 
many even before it did so on Austria-Hungary. 
Montenegro should be considered a member of 
the Allied coalition from ihc beginning of the 
game, 

30 PORTUGUESE ENTRT: Portugal 
entered the war in March, 1916. That Summer 
two divisions formed the Portuguese Expedi- 
tionary Force and were sent to the Western Front, 
deploying in the North where ii was involved in 
several of the British offensives (in fact, one of the 
divisions was unfortunate enough to be directly m 
the path of Ludendorffs 1918 Victory Offensive, 
and was annihilated by German stosstruppen). 
One 2-4-3 Portuguese Corps is received as an 
Allied reinforcement on the July 1914 tum. 
Because of its detachment from the mainstream 
of the war [and its absence from [he map}, 
Portugal receives only one replacement point al 
the beginning of every season (September . 
December, March. June). The Corps can be 
represented by an unused 2-4-3 from another 
nation (preferably one not involved on the front 
on which it is deployed) or can be "coined" by the 
player, Clod knows there are enough blanks. 
Portugal, like the U.S. and Britain, can never be 
conquered, and It is immune from morale con- 
siderations as well. 

At Ihe risk of contradicting myself, I would 
also like to offer ideas for historical variants. 
After all, no game of this type would be complete 
without a few what-jfs; 

4.) SWIFT PROSECUTION OF THE 
COLONIAL CAMPAIGNS: During 1914. the 
Allies fell upon and quickly conquered almost all 
of Germany's overseas possessions. The lone ex- 
ception n a* i n German East A frica (Ta nganyi ka) , 
where the Schutztruppe held oui till the end of the 
war, fighting the most successful guerrilla cam- 
paign of all lime and lying down large numbers 
of badly needed Imperial troops. This variant 
postulates that East Africa falls in early 1915. 
freeing large n urn be rs of colonial forces, especially 
South Africans, for service in Europe. One British 
4-6-4 corps h one British 3-3-5 cavalry corps, and 
one British 3 -3 -3 artillery regiment is received dur- 
ing the reinforcemem and replacement phase of 
March, 191 5. An additional 4-6-4 corps is received 
in January, 1916. and still anoiher in January, 
1917. These are treated as normal British rein- 
forcements in all ways. 

5.) JAPANESE PARTICIPATION: After 
the fall of Germany's Pacific Empire, the British 
and French tried to persuade their now -inactive 
Japanese ally to redeploy its army to Europe to 
continue their pari in the war. The Japanese 
declined. Consider that they had agreed. The 
Allies receive as reinforcements in September, 
October, and November of 1915 one 3-5-3 
Japanese Corps per month. They may be 
deployed on any front but all three must deploy 
on the same front. They may not deploy on the 
Russian front if the Allies do not control Constan- 
linople. Even if the Japanese had agreed to send 
an army, they would be very reluctant to squander 
its entire strength in Europe (needed sufficient 
forces lo threaten China). Therefore, the 
Japanese receive NO replacement points at any 
time in the wmc. Once a Japanese unit is 
desiroyed, il is gone forever. Japanese corps will 
have to be "coined" like ihe Portuguese corps. 
Japan can never be conquered. 

6,) GERMAN SUPPORT FOR THE 
EASTER REBELLION: The rebellion in Ireland 
during April, 19lfi certainly succeeded in worry- 
ing Britain but it did not receive the promised 
German support that helped spark it and il was 
never really a very great threat to the British war 
effort . Consider that Germany hived up to its 
promise. On the April and May turns of 1916. the 
Brii is h rccci vc NO replacements o f any kind at all. 
and all British replacement points currently on the 
track are cut in half (rounded up). The German 
player must expend four replacement points on 
each of those two turns to "maintain" the 
rebellion. Failure to do so means that the effects 
are cancelled and the British receive normal 
replacements, 

7.) U.S.-MEX1CAN WAR:*Am\ people are 
familiar with ihe infamous Zimmerman 
Telegram, Suppose Carranza has agreed to the 
secret alliance. The U.S. receives only one divi- 
sion in 1917, thai being the one scheduled for 
June. In 1918, the U.S. only receives rein- 
forcements every other turn (those normally 
scheduled} beginning in January. In Ihe morale 
phase of every turn beginning January 191 6, the 
Allied player rolls a die. If a "I" is rolled, ihe 



U.S. is considered to have defeated Mexico. Rein- 
forcements may begin arriving normally every 
momh beginning the month aficr Mexico is 
defeated. If the U.S. and Mexico arc siill at war at 
the end of 191 8, then U.S. replacements arriving 
in 1919 are cut In half until Mexico is defeated. 

8.) NO ARAB REVOLT: In 1914, Sultan 
Mohammad V of Turkey called the lasi official 
Moslem Jihad in an attempt to unite the Ottoman 
Empire behind ihe war effort. There was little 
response, and eventually the Arabs revolted. 
Assume ihai the Arabians* religious zeal 
oulweighcd their desire to get rid of [he Turks and 
ihey therefore answer the call. Turkey receives 
one additional .2-4-1 corps and one additional 
1-1-4 cavalry division as reinforcements on the 
January 1915 turn. At the option of the Central 
Powers player, the 2-4-3 may be considered 
deployed off-map against Russia, in which case 
the Allied player must immediately withdraw an 
additional Russian corps from the map. The 
redeployed Rusian corps enters with the other 
three on the turn after Turkey is conquered as 
normal - 



Tim Williams 
Knoxvitlc, AR 



***** 

Dear Editor: 

Mr. Morss-s comments in The July-August 
issue were a slap in the face to serious wargamers. 
To be sure, wargames are a hobby tike chess, 
bridge, or monopoly. It is the nature of com- 
petitive achievers to do the vcty best thai they can 
in any field of endeavor be it work, sports, or 
games. Because one does not consider an activity 
to be a noble enterprise does not consiituiesuffi- 
cient cause for criticizing their efforts. Obviously, 
Messrs. Lockwood and Angiolillo have studied 
their wargames thoroughly. They arc to be com- 
mended for sharing their knowledge and ex- 
perience with the gaming public. 

Besides wargames this gamer has played and 
enjoyed chess, duplicate bridge, and oiher 
strategy games. The same stimulating mental 
challenges found in chess and bridge are also 
found in wargames. Chess is an excellent game. It 
features complex, subtle, and precise play. 
Perhaps the real reason it has been analyzed so 
much is lhat il has been around for hundreds of 
years and played by millions of people. There are 
a number of significani differences between chess 
and wargames. Most wargames permit a player to 
move all of his playing pieces each lurn. The ele- 
ment of chance, although occasionally decried by 
most wargamers, is an integral pan of most 
wargames. Having to consider Ihe probability of 
event outcomes adds another dimension to a 
game. Some wargames feature limited intelligence 
concepts which can make detailed analysis more 
complex. Being a historical simulaiion. a 
wargame will oftentimes present a situaton where 
one side has an inherent advantage (such as 
spotting a player a piece in chess). Some of the 
more complex wargames rival chess and duplicate 
bridge for a fascinating menial challenge. 

Historically, chess was used to train ihemind^ 
of nobility. Today, some games are used to train 
our military and corporate leaders. Wargames are 
being recognized as challenging and enjoyable 
game*. Compulers are being programmed to play 
wargames. Computers have been playing chess 
for years and can beat everyone except the very 
best chess players. Maybe In a few years a com- 
puier will be able to beat Mr. AngIoli|Eoin5TV4£.- 
INGRAD. En ihe meantime perhaps Mr. Morss 
could use ihe information provided by dedicated 
wargamers such as Messrs. Lockwood and 
Angioliilo to enhance his own playing skills and 
enjoyment of the games. 

Robert J, Bcyma 
Pocomoke; Maryland 

***** 

Dear Don: 

When I first read through the diatribe by one 
Mr. Robcn Morss in Volume IS, Number 2. my 
first impression was that of some pseudointellec- 
tual malcontent merely venting his spleen at the 
facl that iherc were individuals out there who 
dared to model iheir analysis after his beloved 
game of chess. My second impression, after hav- 
ing taken the lime to reread his let ter, was not half 
so flattering. Since I dislike having someone else 



45 

attribute thoughts and altitudes to me in print 
which in fact are not my true ones, I wish to take 
this opportunity to make public reply. 

In regard lo Mr, Moras' coniention thai Mr. 
Angiolillo T s and my chess like analysis fl can hear 
him hitting the ceiling already) of our respective 
favorite wargames constitute a mere "pulling on 
of airs," 1 tnusi take exception. \f 1 perceive 
myself as "erudite and estimable." it is for a 
number of reasons oihef lhan the comparatively 
unimportant one of my being a recognized "ex- 
peri " at a particular wargame. Mr. Morss argues 
thai "wargames are not chess." Such a profound 
observation, though J seriously doubl lhat anyone 
would require Mr. Morss to point it out to him. 
Does he forget lhat chess itself is merely the most 
abstract of wargames? One can analyze the objec- 
tive factors which interact on a wargaming board 
in the same way that these same factors have been 
analyzed on ihe chessboard for many centuries, 
remembering, of course, to incorporate in one's 
analysis the uncertainty of the probability factor 
introduced by the die. The existence of chance in 
wargames is what distinguishes them from chess. 

It appears lhat Mr. Morss h of the opinion 
that chess is so "sacred," so above every oiher 
game of strategy, lhat attempts at in-depth 
analysis of other games is tarn amount to heresy, 
especially if ihey use similar terminology. I'm sur- 
prised lhat he hasn't gone looking for Oswald 
Jacohy because of his chcsslike style of analysis of 
Ihe game of backgammon. 

1 have little 10 say about Morss' com men is 
concerning wargaming's "state of the art," both 
as a hobby and in the realm of design, other than 
to say that it is rather obvious that there have been 
great strides in game system design since the late 
5G's. Since wargames attempt to simulate 
historical or postulated situations taiher than a 
totally abstract situation divorced from reality as 
chess docs, commems about "state of the an" 
design really amount to comparing apples and 
Oranges. 

Finally, 1 fully agree wiih Morss" statement 
that wargaming is a hobby for the majority of its 
participants. It certainly is an entertaining and env 
j ova b le one for me, and I cherish Ihe many friend- 
ships I have formed at ihe Origins conventions 
which I have attended. I merely wish lhat Mr. 
Moras would remember thai chess is also just a 
hobby for the majori t y o f its part icipa nts , and not 
to "make a bigger deal out of it" lhan is justified. 
Wargames and chess each require a peculiar kind 
of expertise, and the day that Mr. Morss achieves 
a noteworthy level of expertise in either Is 
doubtless one for which Mr, Angioliilo and 1 will 
wait an eternity without result, 

Jonathans. Lockwood, Ph.D, 
Ft. Huachuca, AZ 



***** 



Mr, Greenwood: 

After reading ihc letter from Robert Morss 
(THE GENERAL, Vol, IS. No. 2, July-August). 
1 fell he shoul d have heeded t he m oral o f hi s open- 
ing anecdote. 

Mr, Morss" entire letter was in opposition lo 
the evaluation and analysis of wargames in a 
manner similar lo chess. His reasons for opposi- 
tion were: IJMosi people play wargames only for 
recreation, and 2) wargames are not as complex as 
chess. 

While wargames are "only games" io most 
wargamers, ihe same is true of chess — as Mr, 
Morss should know. Serious chessplayers are only 
a comparative handful of all chessplayers. Few 
chess books are written for these players. Mosi are 
written for beginning or weak players who would 
like to play better, as a look m any bookstore will 
show. The serious players arc the ones doing the 
writing. 

The supposed superior complexity of chess is 
an illusion. Chess has, over its long history, been 
extensively analyzed. This has elevated ihe 
apparent complexity of chess by making it 
impossible to get by with weak or average moves. 
Everyone has access to the best analysis of 
strategy, tactics, and lines of play. Inferior 
preparation fails, t f chessplayers we re depri ved of 
ihis analysis, the level of chess would be 
considerably lower than it is. The rules and con- 
cepts of chess arc quite simple; analysis makes the 
difference. 

In conclusion, wargames could benefit 
tremendously from analysis and evaluation of 
play— as the history of chess shows quite well. 
Mr. Morss could not possibly be more wrong in 
his argument. 

Michael Lee Williams 

Salem, IN 



46 



CIRCUS MAXIMUS: 

6.525 + 8.3 — Whai happens if a chariot wilh a 
turn speed of eleven and remaining endurance of 
4, which is about to enter [he innermost corner 
lane where Che maximum speed is eight, elects 
voluntarily strain with the resulting dice rot] of 
sis'? According to rule 6.525 the additional MJF.'S 
are treated as equal to the amount of the remain- 
ing endurance i.e. A, bui as this reduces [he en- 
durance io T does ihe chariot automatically nip 
as it will exceed the safely speed? 
A. Yes. 

9 t Jll— ft'hai happen; if a chariot has completed 
its movement phase for that [urn but is attacked 
by another chariot and successfully evades intoan 
inside corner lane but by doing so Che safety speed 
of the new lane exceeds the last written turn speed 
of the evading chariot? Does the chariot have to 
check [he corner strain chart immediately? 
A. Yes — which is why he might not want to 
evade. 

9,62— if a chariot Is forced to make an involun- 
tary ram attack and its car is forced into another 
team do I presume thai rule 9,62 whereby the 
CDM is reduced by 3 temporarily for this volun- 
tary attack does not apply, other than for deter- 
mining whether the defender is able to evade or 
brake, bceausetheCDM does not form part of the 
process for deciding ram attacks on horses? 
A, Yes. 

12.4— In the advanced game I presume (hat (he 
chariot wreck must land exactly on an opposing 




car or ieam T i.e. not move onto a chariot and 
beyond ii , Also, J p resu me t hat a + 3 or -3 would 
be added io the dice roll if the wrecked car was 
heavy or light. 

A. The wreck may attempt to attack only that 
part of the chariot which occupies the square ll 
finally lands in — noi those ii moves through on 
the way to that square, ERMs for heavy or light 
chariot* would apply, 

14<3— If a chariot lands exactly on a wreck in the 
advanced game, i.e. does nor clear it. may this 
same chariot attack an opponent from this posi* 
lion? If so, J presume that the "Running Over 
Wrecks Chart" would only be consulted when 
this chariot clears the wreck entirely. 
A- No — if a chariot is unable to clear the wreck in 
one turn it flips automatically if at ends its turn on 
a wreck counter, 

6AI — In the same movement phasc H may a 
chariot which has just expended a M,F- by ai- 
tacklng, change lanes immediately for a cost of 
eit her I or 2 M . F , *s? i . e. the ch ariot does not have 
to move forward first ihen change lanes. 
A- No— although a chariot may change lanes 
automatically at the end of an attack — such a lane 
change is always accompanied by a move forward 
and then over— unless blocked in which case a 
sideslip muse be paid for. 



Q. I presume that it is permissable foronechariot 
io purposely lag behind last place and elect not to 
move during a turn, in order to attack the leading 
chariot when lapped by ft. 
A, Yes, although players may agree at ihestartof 
a race to outlaw this tactic. 

9.3— May a defending chariol elect to brake to 
avoid an attack i f it has only one endurance factor 
remaining? 
A, No 

9,52— If a chariot has one endurance factor re- 
maining and has to lose a quarter as a result of a 
dead horse I presume that the one endurance fac- 
tor remains intact . 

A- Yes— that's what "Tractions rounded down" 
refers to. 

8.41— When a chariot with one endurance factor 
remaining enters the corner aE a speed of iSMFs 
and the corner has a safety speed or 17, which 
means that the endurance reduces to 0, can this 
chariot move all 18 MPs on this turn? 
A. Yes , however, i f i I had exceeded the safe S peed 
by 2 it would automatically flip. 

GLADIATOR ERRATA: 

6, 1 Delete the East sentence, 

6.3 Add to Stumble definition: This check should 

be made after movement notation bui prior to 



movement execution and supercedes any marked 

movement if a fall resulls, 

6^4 Add to QUICK MOVE definition: "or used 

more than once." 

7.S Add: If both gladiators moved, andend their 

movement in the same hex, a collision occurs but 

no modifiers for positional advantage are received 

by either gladiator. This is not true if one 

gladiator does not leave his hex and does noi 

change his facing. 

7,53 Add: This check should be made immediately 

after stun resoluiion. but the stumble results/ 

attacker benefits do not go into effect until the 

next phase. 

18.3 Add: Combat factors are not halved for 

defensive purposes. 

D-DAY: 

Q: As the Allies invade one area, their 
paratroopers capture a port in an adjacent area. 
On the second turn of the invasion, are ihe units 
landing in the captured port subject to the "Sec- 
ond Turn" limits on the port + s Troop Invasion 
Chart? 

A: No fc they are subject to the "Third Turn On" 
limits! The "First Turn" and "Second Turn" 
limits apply only to the area being invaded on the 
turn of invasion and the next turn. All other areas 
and turns are subject to the "Third Turn On" 

Q; Do units that sail for Briiain from a port count 
against the units chat can land at that port? Does 
the departure of the units increase the number of 
units that can land? 

A: No and No, 



READER BUYERS GUIDE 



TITLE: 
SUBJECT: 



GLADIATOR 

Man to Man Game of Gladiatorial Combat 



S9-.00 



In placing 32nd on the current RBG chart. 
GLADIATOR managed to besl the average 
ratings for five categories (Components, Com- 
pleteness of Rules. Play Balance. Realism, and 
Excitcmcnl Level j. Were it noi for a very poor 
rating for tile map board which is just a single 
panel with no terrain differentiation the game 
would have had a much better cumulative rating. 

Despite ihepoor raiing for ihemapboard, the 
game did do well in the Components category. 
This was most likely due to ihe miniatures Tee! 
given the game by ihe inclusion of double printed 
counters which stand erect in a plastic holder to 
represent ihe combatants. This highly visual use 
of "counters" does much to make one forget the 
drabnessof the board. 

Nevertheless, the game probably benefitted 
from a small sample of raters due io subject 
matter and scale. Ancients fans are a definite 
minority and when you further subdivide thai 
audience with a man-to-man scale there isn't 
much of an audience left. Those who purchased 
GLADIATOR were probably predisposed to 
enjoy that lype of game moreso than ihe average 
game player. 



The real story behind GLADIATOR is prob- 
ably Ihe average playing time of 46 minutes. 
Although Individual combats can be as short as 
ten minutes or prolonged to two hours, the point 
is well taken that this game is refreshingly short. 
This means not only that several games can be 
played per day, but also that a Campaign Game 
can easi ly be played over the course o f a weekend . 
In fact t the Campaign Game version of 
GLADtA TOR wilh special emphasis on its pro- 
tracted injury and cK-pericnee rules will make an 
excellent tournament medium for stng[e elimina- 
tion convention events. 

RAIL BARON, whose presence on the RBC 
as a non-wargame was questionable anyway, has 
been deleted to keep the chart at 50 titles. 



COMIN 






^r•''»■^*w^^■»■v*^»^»^■' 



NEXT 



MMMWMM 




AVALON HILL RBG RATING CHART 

The games are ranked by their cumulative scores which is an average of the 9 categories for each 
game. WhiJe u maybe fairly argued that each category should not weigh equally against the others, 
we use it only as a generalization of overall rank. By breaking down a game's ratings into individual 
categories the gamer is able to discern for himself where the game is strong or weak in i he Qualities 
he values the most. Readers are reminded thai the Game Length category is measured in multiples of 
ten minutes and (hat a rating of I B would equal 3 hours. 

o 2 si ncmors"o 3J rm q ct 



1 


CRESCENDO OF DOOM 


2.04 


1.93 


1.64 


2.33 


3.20 


2.31 


2.13 


1.36 


1.56 


1.82 


19.5 


2 


CROSS OF IRON 


2.17 


2.09 


2.04 


1.88 


3.37 


2.52 


2.44 


1.60 


1.69 


1 94 


20,5 


3 


RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 


2.24 


1. 98 


1.85 


2.02 


2.24 


3.07 


2.78 


2.41 


1.78 


2.07 


28.5 


4 


SQUAD LEADER 


2.25 


1.97 


1.B5 


1.82 


3.58 


2.94 


2.36 


2.02 


1 82 


1-92 


13.6 


5 


CIRCUS MAXIMUS 


2.27 


2. S3 


2,13 


2.93 


2,27 
2.88 


2.33 


1.13 


2.26 


2.14 


2.28 


11.6 


6 


W.S. & I.M. 


2 3-i 


2.40 


3.07 


2.38 


2.39 


2.07 


1.85 


1.8B 


2 10 


S.2 


7 


ANZ10 


2.36 


2.11 


1.74 


1.94 


3.74 


2.88 


2,52 


2.00 


2.09 


2,15 


21,7 


a 


BISMARCK 


2.37 


2.16 


3.00 


1.69 


2.97 


2.63 


2.72 


1.84 


2.09 


2.31 


IB. 8 


9 


WAR AND PEACE 


2.43 


2.37 


2.32 


2.54 


2,34 


2.56 


2.61 


2.54 


2.29 


2 32 


17,0 


10 


FORTRESS EUROPA 


2 44 


2 2 1 


3.29 


2.S7 


2.50 
3,65 


2.64 


2.43 


2 36 


1.93 


2.07 
2.20 


44.1 


1 1 


PANZER LEADER 


2.50 


2.41 


2.17 


2.34 


2.60 


2.67 


2. IS 


2.34 


13.1 


12 


RICHTHOFEM'S 


2.52 


2.28 


2.62 


2.12 


2.63 


2.94 


2,60 


2.66 


2.39 


2.45 


6.0 


13 


CAESAR-ALESIA 


2.53 


2. 32 


2.71 


2.7B 


1.71 


1.85 


3.36 


2.64 


2.71 


2.07 


27.3 


14 


1776 


2-56 


2.16 


1 76 


2.45 


3,27 


2.62 


3. OB 


2.72 


2.63 


2.36 


33.4 


15 


3rd REICH 


2.57 


2.12 
2.00 


2.47 


2.34 


4.15 


3.22 


2.59 


2.24 
2.05 


1.95 
2.07 


2.06 
2. OS 


34.9 


16 


PANZERBLITZ 


2.58 


3 00 


2.03 


4.03 


3.00 


3.06 


■4.0 




KINGMAKER 


2.60 


2.26 


2. 94 


2.34 


2.B3 


3.07 


1.B6 


3 65 


2.14 


2.41 


20.2 


18 


DIPLOMACY 


2.60 


2.35 


2.26 


3.13 


1.B7 


2.39 


2.09 


4.57 


2.30 


2.43 


32.6 


19 


CAESAR'S LEGIONS 


2.64 


2.32 


2.36 


2.31 


2.14 


2.23 


3.73 


3.05 


2.86 


2.73 


13.5 


20 


SUBMARINE 


2.65 


2.58 


3.4B 
3.11 


2.42 
2.07 


2.90 


2.87 


2.55 
3,57 


2.38 
3.39 


2.22 
2.20 


2.47 


12,1 


21 


STARSHIP TROOPERS 


2.67 


2.27 


2.43 


2.70 


2.32 


17.3 


22 


ARAB ISRAELI WARS 


2.68 


2.34 


3.03 


1.86 


3.31 


2.70 


3.57 


2.31 


2.51 


2.52 


13.5 


23 


CHANCELLORSVULE 


2.68 


2.62 


2.57 


2.46 


2.26 


2.52 


3.43 


3.07 


2.55 


2.64 


18,8 


24 


VICTORY- PACIFIC 


2.70 


2,47 


2.36 


1.85 


2.21 


2.73 


3.38 


3.91 


1.94 


2 53 


18.0 


25 


DUNE 


2.76 


2.45 


2.40 
2.96 


3.00 
2 03 


1.98 


2.43 


2-75 


4.20 


2.80 


2.83 


11.9 


26 


NAPOLEON 


7 77 


2.04 


2.25 


2 86 


3.25 


4 18 


2.46 


2.89 


9.1 


27 


FRANCE 1940 


2.82 


1.75 


2.05 


1.85 


3,30 


3.25 


4,05 


3.00 


3.40 


2.75 


16.0 


28 


The LONGEST DAY 


2.83 


2.23 


2.60 


2.40 


3.20 


3.53 


3.30 


2.28 


2.80 


3.15 


171. 


29 


JUTLAND 


2. S3 


2.84 


— 


2.39 


3.27 


3.06 


3.24 


2.53 


2.61 


2.67 


29.7 


30 


LUFTWAFFE 


2.3/ 


2.41 


2 HI 


2.04 


2 B6 


3.02 


3 73 


3.41 


2.B2 


2.64 


24.2 


31 


MIDWAY 


2.88 


2.75 


3.12 


2.56 


2.78 


2.90 


3.68 


3.08 


2.37 


2.73 


15.7 


32 


GLADIATOR 


2. 88 


2.84 


4.00 


2.47 


2.89 


2.63 


2,79 


3,05 


2,53 


2.74 


4.6 


33 


AFRIKA KORPS 


2. SO 


3.04 


3.10 


2.92 


2.12 


2.29 


3.39 


3.67 


2.91 


2,77 


13.5 


34 
3S 


FURY IN THE WEST 

ALEXANDER 


2.91 
2.93 


3.36 

2 ua 


4.01 
3.21 


3.00 
3.19 


2.55 
2.55 


2.45 
2.98 


2,99 
3,43 


2.82 
2.76 


2.09 
2.43 


2.91 
2.86 


17.8 
12.7 


36 


GUNS OF AUGUST 


2.93 


; i i 


2 94 


3.03 


2,4! 


3.15 


2 96 


2.83 


3.38 


2.87 


27.8 


3 7 


ORIGINS OF WWII 


2.98 


2 69 


2. 58 


2 80 


2.00 


2.22 


4.00 


4.06 


3.11 


3 40 


9.6 


38 


WIZARD'S QUEST 


3.03 


2.63 


2.21 


3.25 


2 62 


2.60 


2.23 


5 13 


3.42 


3.21 


13.2 


39 


CRETE -MALTA 


3.04 


2.80 


3.10 


3.00 


3.03 


3.05 


3.43 


3.18 


2.76 


3.05 


18.8 


40 


GETTYSBURG '77 


3.04 


2. 52 


2.48 


2.50 


4.32 


3.79 


3.07 


2 46 


3.02 


3.21 


27.6 


-1 ! 


D-DAY 77 


3.07 


3.72 


4.54 


3.69 


2.19 


1 94 


3.00 


3.13 


2 34 


2.44 


20.2 


42 


BLITZKRIEG 


3.09 


3.39 


3.28 


3.30 


3.14 


2. 89 


2.25 


3.67 


2.81 


3.05 


24.0 


J 3 


TOBRUK 


3.10 


2.85 


4.68 


2.13 


4.32 


2.77 


3.06 


2.11 


3.00 


2.95 


21.6 


44 

4S 


WATERLOO 
WAH AT SEA 


3. IB 
3.21 


3.28 

3.18 


3.27 
3.96 


3.11 
2.74 


2.01 
1.74 


3,11 
2.35 


3.27 

3.73 


4,32 
5.12 


3.21 

2.93 


3.01 
3-15 


16.2 
6.9 


■!6 


FEUDAL 


3.25 


3 . l ii 


4.33 


2.64 


2 28 


2 33 


2 1 2 


5.38 


3.58 


3.3S 




47 


AIR FORCE 


3.43 


3.77 


4.94 


3.79 


3.63 


3.29 


2.42 


2.81 


2.77 


3.40 


9.6 


48 


STALINGRAD 


3.44 


343 


3.74 


3.40 


2.07 


2.52 


4.37 


S.15 


3.28 


3.04 


20.0 


49. 


TACTICS II 


3.51 


343 


4 30 


3.59 


1 46 


2.18 


2 32 


5.57 


4.59 


4.20 


11.6 


50 


MAGIC REALM 


3.54 


2.74 


2.81 


3.13 


5.29 


4.42 


2.30 


4.06 


3.39 


3.26 


19.9 




AVERAGE 


2.77 


2.60 


2.88 


2.56 


2.82 


2.76 


2.93 


3.10 


2.53 


2.66 


21.2 



47 



Vol. 18, No. 2 polled a rating of 3.51 which 
made it only the 4th best issue of a none-too-strong 
year. In fact, it marked the seventh straight time 
we've failed to get under the 3.00 barrier in the 
reader ratings. The last time we tickled your collec- 
tive fancies with a sub-3.00 rating was back in Vol. 
17, No. 1 when the WAR & PEACE issue managed 
a 2.79 rating. 

David Bottger's AIR FORCE ANALYSIS 
predictably led the ratings for Vol. 18, No. 2 by a 
wide margin over the SQUAD LEADER CLINIC, 
Other individual article ratings based on a random 
sample of 200 responses with three points 
awarded a first place vote, two points for a second, 
and one point for a third were as follows: 

AIH FORCE ANALYSIS 403 

SQUAD LEADER CLINIC 146 

STATE OF THEAFTTTOBRUK 112 

PEARL HARBOR DEFENDED , 102 

DESIGN ANALYSIS SB 

DESERT DECEPTION 75 

HITTHE BEACH 71 

STRATEGY IN DIPLOMACY 64 

THEASYUJM 61 

AVALON HILL PHILOSOPHY 44 

STAFF BRIEFING 14 

AIWP0INT8Y POINT 10 



With the end of the year upon us, we must all 
face the facts that good old Uncle Sam wasn't able 
to stop double digit inflation again this year. Besides 
making it more difficult to eat, it also means we can 
expect another increase in game prices during the 
new year. While those price hikes have not yet 
been established they are inevitable. The only ques- 
tion is whether they will equal the inflation rate. If 
so, that would mean an average increase of $2.00 
per game. In keeping with our tradition of warning 
GENERAL subscribers about upcoming price hikes 
and granting a grace period for ordering at the old 
rates, we hereby urge readers to make any 
purchases they have been contemplating before 
the new rates take effect. Avalon Hill will honor 
1981 prices to their mail order customers until 
March 1st, 1982. 



From Atlanta comes news of a gala event for 
SQUAD LEADER enthusiasts. The First Annual 
Atlanta Squad Leader Open will be a five round, 
two-day, round-robin tournament in which all 
players play five games. The pairings for each 
round will be based upon won/loss record and the 
level of rules he desires to play. Cash prizes will be 
awarded to the first four places in the open divison, 
with a junior division for players under 18 being 
eligible for trophies. Ties will be broken by the com- 
posite score of the players beaten minus the 
players lost to. Entry fee is $ 1 5. 00 for the Open and 
$7.50 for the Junior Division, Those interested in 
further information should send a SASE to D. 
Munsell, 2327 Dayron Circle, Marietta, GA 30062. 



The Elite Club is nothing more than we state in 
our standard filler ad for Elite Club Ticket holders 
which is run frequently. Being a member of the Elite 
Club means simply that you have qualified to 
receive a special membership card with detachable 
coupons that you can use to purchase AH games 
by mail direct from Avalon Hill. The card is good for 
five years and has five yearly coupons that you can 
use once per year to deduct $1 .00 off the price of 
every game you order at that time. When you use 
the last yearly coupon on that card, you will be 
issued another card free of charge, but if you should 
ever lose the card it will not be replaced and you 
would have to requalify for membership. Anyone 
can join the Elite Club by simply placing an order for 
any six Avalon Hill games totalling at least $ 50, No 
discounts apply to that order. 



Infiltrator's Report 












The newest non-wargame from Avalon Hill is 
another entry in the business category. GOLD! is a 
game that is easy to get into. It takes about ten 
minutes to read the rules. You can then enter the 
world of international finance and begin to manage, 
or mismanage, your investments. A game for the 
whole family, that young and old can enjoy 
together, while learning a little bit about the money 
that makes the world go round. For two to eight 
players. NOW AVAILABLE direct from Avalon Hill 
for $25 plus 10% postage and handling. 

The SUBMARINE rules and playing cards are 
being revised for an upcoming reprint. These of- 
ficial changes are being noted here in their entirety 
for the benefit of GENERAL subscribers. 

p. 9, 15.6.1 -change 'ASW to 'ATW'. 
p. 12, 20.4.3, rewrite-A submarine may be placed 
at any depth and direction that the submarine 
player wishes. 

p. 12, Scenario 1 -change 'U.128' to 'U.99'. 
p. 12, Scenario 4-starting location for Herzog is 
N39, Bd B, Dir 6, 

p. 13, Scenario 6, VI. Victory Conditions-The car- 
rier must exit board edge 6. 

p. 13, Scenario 8, IV. Victory Conditions-The 
Wahoo must inflict at least 30 victory points 
without being sunk by the end of turn 20 in order for 
the American player to win. Any other result is a 
Japanese victory. 

p. 13, Scenario 8, VII. Optional Rules-The game 
can be extended to 40 turns. In this option, the 
Wahoo must inflict at least 50 victory points 
without being sunk to win. Any other result is a 
Japanese victory. 

p. 13, Scenario 8-The maximum depth for the 
Wahoo is 250 ft. 

p. 13, Scenario 9-The maximum depth for the 
Harder is 250 ft. 

p. 13, IV. Victory Conditions-U.251 1 must score at 
least one hit on a British destroyer and exit map- 
board edge 3 by the end of turn 10 for the German 
player to win. If the German doesn't win, the British 
player must have at least one hit against the Ger- 
man submarine to win, otherwise it is a draw, 
p. 13, Change section 20, 10 to 20.9. 
p. 13, Scenario 11, order of battle-change 2-T2 
tankers to 4-T3 tankers and 2-1 C2 Merchantmen 
to 2 -EC 2 Merchantmen. 

p. 14, Scenario 12, VII. Optional Rules-change 
36,0 to 26.0. 



p. 14, change 20.1 to 20, 10. 
p. 14, Campaign game-17. To use an aerial depth 
charge, the British player simply places the depth 
charge in a hex containing a portion of the U-boat. 
No more than one aerial depth charge may be 
placed in a hex in a turn. 

p. 17, 29.4-add ASDIC to Sonar, delete ASDIC 
from Radar. 

p, 18, Attack points;-Remove 10cm and 3cm 
sonar. Replace with 'For each vessel with improv- 
ed sonar-4'. 

p. 19, Exchange caption 'hexside' with 'hex 
grain'. 

p. 20,-40,4 A ship which passes through a hex 
occupied by hidden torpedo(es) cannot undergo a 
torpedo attack. Attacks are resolved only in the 
Torpedo Movement Phase when initiated by 
torpedo movement. 

p. 21, 40.10-delete the value 'V immediately 
following the word 'plots:', 
p. 21 , Caption under Evasion Table-shallow runn- 
ing torpedo-add one to the colored die. 
p. 21 , captions under Torpedo Location-018, Dir. 
1/2, 1 34, Dir 5/6. 

p. 23-48.2 For each ship firing, the controlling 
player cross-indexes the gunnery factor with the 
range to the target ship on the Advanced surface 
Gunnery Table to determine the damage factor. 
This factor can be modified as detailed on the 
table, 
p. 23 Weather Table 

Atlantic and North Sea Mediterranean 



61 -66 Gale 

41 -56 Storm 

21-36 Rough 

11-16 Clear 



61 -66 Gale 

41-56 Storm 

21-36 Rough 

11-16 Clear 



p. 24, addition to 51 .3. 1 -Circling torpedoes may be fired 
along hex grain only, 

p. 24, 51.4.2 Illustration-Remove X and Z angles. The 
XXI and XXIII subs had no stern torpedo tubes, 
p. 24, 51.5.3-Replace word 'normal' with '300 lb.', 
pg. 27, 64. 3.1 -change 'CL7' to 'CL6'. 
p. 27, Sub Log Bow Tubes -move 'B7 and CL6'toturn 2. 
pp. 28-29, Remove sentence 'In the Advanced game on- 
ly .. . occupies'. 

p. 32, Change I35.0) to I25.0], I32.5) to (22.6), and 
(31. 71 to (23. 5). 

Does anyone remember PARLIAMENT, a privately- 
published (mimeo?) multi-player game of party 
politics and government-coalition building? We 
would appreciate hearing from anyone who has a 
copy in their collection, or who knows how we can 
acquire a copy or get in touch with the designer. 
The game was published about ten years ago, and 
had an enthusiastic following at one time, though 
rumor has it that there were problems with the 
design. If you played this game we would like to 
know your opinion. 

The ten winners of AIR FORCE Contest 102 
were: M. Thufeen, Boise, ID; S. Cannon, Seattle, 
WA; S. Overton, Odessa, TX; K. Roth, Hanover 
Park, IL: B. Evans, Enid, OK; D. Anthony, Houston, 
TX; E. Gray, Hawthorne, CA; J. Reeves, Spokane, 
WA; C. Van der Beken; Darmstadt, W. Germany; 
and G. Cutler, Brooklyn, NY. 

The solution to contest No. 103 was for the 
Dutch 2-4-3s to occupy L7 and M9, while two of 
the Belgian 3-5-3s and a 1-1-4 occupied Liege 
with the remaining Belgian 3- 5-3 in Antwerp. The 
primary purpose of the Dutch and Belgian place- 
ment is to prevent German penetration during the 
opening movement phase. The Dutch units are 
used to screen Liege and Antwerp. Liege is AV 
proof. A secondary consideration is to tie down as 
many German troops as possible. Any German 
casualties inflicted are an added bonus. Properly 
executed, the German August, 1914 move will 
always take out Belgium and Holland. The Allied 
player's goal is to minimize the German penetra- 
tion as a result of his August, 1914 turn. 



OPPONENTS WANTED 



OPPONENTS WANTED 



OPPONENTS WANTED 



Need two fl f oppunerrfi i for TLD w i* koij i, :eara 
fctr Gtmin *t*r KtiMi ip w Gunc«j|e i4nx. CHI 
Allen al 021.7344. Altai. Womaek. SlT Alfocd 

A«t i Brf-fflinlnjfli, Ai 5322n 

Detperaselv need ■targaiTir pjiewrienc in Mottle 
area. Prefer lo play »eek Jav niir.it, bul I'm He*- 
«4e, AK. AWT, BL. HB. DD. OOA, PL, TKC. 
STAL, IB.. j« Caidbt. S5M Fginier Rtf. 

Tbcwkirt r ALMCMI-Tllj 

Flf w plrai. SL, COI, COD. Mr. T. Tnadcwiw, 
hi. rr Ik." :.HJ. Marshall. AK TirVSi) 
Ajjii timet «eJlj Ml . . : .[-.r.,_-iii rui 
PL/FBrAlW/SL neekendt. Hon Aryf) 244 S. 

Rufwd, Ray, Kiiih r ca vi;i3. htb.jiot. n<m 

ArifjA quii wrlsui. niiytt. 

Aduli earner wanti fl fSL, GUI. COD, SLIB. SST, 
WSlM, arm whcti. Je-rr Furwliei, J520 Ln. 

PQruladi . CjTKqjjl, CAVJPW. 7W-B 23E 

2-S j-r. old. atm- ratni »aulH pbm upjioncmi [or 

MIJ. !'■!„■. i.Vri.:! Hj, 7iU,.iii:ii. Is. I -il ::■- . -i 

'ai RjiiL-h.:> Cu , 1 olli eiriort, CA WiH 
Poitil Kuigjti4ip, OB*ti*i >ijdi<ut (liromhMi 
lbs )ot. Send far iBfrarruboo (tiii-icll Lrjijj.it-, 
aol? HuweSr.. <A. tjuk.arid.CA Will. (413} 

M?-nn»l 

OppooaTflv ■ranlFd, lis sn Su-lo. area or p3m 
St Al.. TRC, Ft, DO, AT. , WAT. PL . A I lW„ BB. 
Also imerejced in my club* in Sl^imefltni Ilea. 
Dc-d( Bin. 13 It, llaj-rl St.. TOJfJTi PiBrv, CA 

^3?^. 1,tId1 fAi-M*? 

AREA IJ24GCO.. »anci pbm ct PB and PC. 
AHEAaad jr»it 1H»0fltK. CurTliaruriil]v4lll 
CiEeen Villi* Kd., ki-,.j£ CA «*?:!, '''In 



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lull ofiponwn. r« 
(If. Anj wiraame. Tiird ul playani uXlsitse. 
IoJip LtabrkM, F2« Haekbetry Ul, Ai*. 1 I J, 

S^tmtWia.CA SWI. J44>|73t, 

tjruiie C-euniy lamer 'inn opponent for AF. 
DL, SElfl. Hm varleru card, |ui pii*ejI not HI 
AF„ HI., 0( npamiOrt kit, il 1 Inlercitnl. Rooald 
h ■iis«f!v.r=l:, E/d KmI li. 32 6 1,1 Vim. i Ana. CA 
*:-i:| r7 Ml S3 5 :J-I 

Ailulr f I^>ct vatilk in ™ a phm numt o[ Drlitoi. 
If ln:ere*i«i) wite i» ft Mwitfl HtCwtl, 16 
Unddh II Dr , T.H-20* Dun MhIU. Qniirip, 

Cwmti 

EiptorriMd aduli finu; k«liiri( puiim flp- 
gWflEMl fur FrhEDdEJ- f;T DMnpntOn. AJ, AZ r 
TLO.SL, StlS.WAF. WAT. WStM anJ mhrti 
Ken TjiutiLob. 7J» £. NorlcJd, Aurw». CO 

K01?.WJ-gW!* 

Aduk *irpm«i AtLElA iwcd I &W pfe^rW0«e| 
weki mol pbm TRC, STM. AK, jCh» fEf. S] . 
COC. WAP. MD. CE. Paul WorLhfTun. S3? 
W>Ii»ie Ah«., LVand liwim. CO CtW'l. |3l»|i 
2U.7HZ 



Wr«nced,> pth>. (cl <« AH. E1DT7. 


I'H. Mn. 


TRC, TAC. ARIA rared l^H. ■ P;cmpi ramen 


£f% p!tJm:. Bob Pcrlin». 21 L iwikr S 


, Anionic, 


CT04Wl.1iO)|T3S4m 





Trm"dn> mgrm n-W nm a\ Aftuich Main St., 



' JJritain. CT 0W6J. lifllj 



Wmtnl: ribm np^ttnrni kir LW, H*vf kil Atw 


hMkmt Tm 4r>fnncflt r^i OOA Mui KrJ tyilcm. 


AREA tiled tad prcv. ft*b WlJnw, 2l*J" W. 


UiW St., Blue IdaiaA. H. nD40« r {JU) 3B4WJ 


AKB* Ltaa dtmn pfcm w ftr TRC, W nun* 


oilmt. Muu be AHU IUU • l.m K«ri^. 


JOO WtirSby O , BdinrbrDGt , IL AO*Jfr, |3EJ» 


nt<M7i 


Pbm. BW ■{*■ SI numnnend . Set GcwjI IM. 


Dutl air ywir uriwf Dmiiai R. liilt, SO* E. 


SKHijUiUfi «W. (.lUrapiljtfl, IE 41120, |3t7) 


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EJIjra. Mfe« Sundnj*. BWfl, CifDipui, Ccntf . V 
bUi AD eamn, raznerL, aeei — *pJ«mie!l Tdiuti- 
«mwti amct nipr.1 i^bijai wnilTlliTiini Paul Y 
PeVotpi, «0J Crjlumbir*. LWt, II W>.5l. UO) 

«^Ml!6 

Wanied: Hie tMiMjl V^il 1. »i Rolmi Krdk. 
JIljm 1. An 3DI, F'FJir,: Vin, l|. HDCiM, [J13) 



Lsnf I iirr warixmer. ct-:rni AHEA [WJOJ-ieek; l 1: ! 
^ompti inon Ut DIP.ODA. Sa.SL.MaI . 3K. 
W*P. .ir Vlff. Pavb pipilnn, fl»Dmlrti. «J. 
SfKa^fMd. U.MffPI.QiT>Tf7.|TTT 



j.j,[ meiY^ii twk IVh lu«n 


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Veetlet ftr m COD. ATI. BB. TRC. JR. WAP and 


■ ii '..;•■. Ix it !...jv.. ims 


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i-niiod pbm. Na l.mi.v. Adulu (it 
kiM 12 ¥t-t, uldp. PMmp< in makhu rrrinei. U«r 
tHMH »)iifin. Play iii mcmnki Icrn. AOC. IR. 
W.t1V i.,J . Craig Kailei, >T«4 Sticlif Cl-. biian 

RtfU^ t LA 7CBM 

Aduli rotice war ^.ire.rr aer j I wpiJhl |Lktlg nwd 
umc Ik I i r in IbMboKaH, AIL. BL, STAL. K'AT, 
»i|Iiiij li> Irarn uihtr ijrc.rr. JwJib Mnduina, 3D 
l^lly Pond Ed . Apa- U. tkneily, MA (H»E.', 

<ilf|i 97J-066S 

Oppone^ tinned tot IM. t Brntmhi &wfl AO« 
STAL, JR. ar J n:in> ra«e. Eager to lejfi uii h T f i 
Aft) 1 c9iA> ill iTir ata.? Jl^natlUn Ferris, a Dcrot 
St,.Ap<.3. Btf.cM.MACrin.4. T30-I3W 
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Merabfi Inleiinii'l Camet ASRC — btjafarkBI 
wnkpnwd (wnd tlaanp I'or rftixhjrpi John 
Ruffti-, IMTa (IrofflU-fl. Perfnit. HI JI2M, 

<3I]| Mi-uni 

AHub waf«ipn<f AfttA SlW pri*». »i*Mti uf> 
jjcnnrlL Jot ptmi WAT. LaLed farce* pnly Will 
alM rbnl luin-ralrtf AZ. Bob KilkrukHrf, |a)&| 
Paindl A^e. J.g . Adi, MP iWfll. I.SIS) 

WT-«W 

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in Pluinr TfHVL irn J iwo "anipi Ilk uniple. On 
il '■'■■!-". AW'A ..lii.'i'nf.l Mn n in Bain, P.O. 
11,." Ml. k ■ ■*.,■.*... Ml -viM'.. ;..^.J',J 7V; 1 
PM WAT. -STAI , TRC, BL, AZ. AK. BB'SI, 
PO. B]L | dan. <W raied, | >.ill fibm faltd im nan- 
rated DfipoornEi. L« l.iBKlnor.-, IHfrL lijrdcn 

Cir.. Soulblwid. Ml hIE(J7S. SW.TO3J 

Qppaneoii it^nEfd !or ttf . PB, PI . IIW, Lft'. BL 
my home only PLiy for Tub. Rick R. CWFander. 
MIW KthnnKMl a4.. TlrkT. Ml JIISO. OE3p 

»z-?m 

area rajAB/nr, *jrad. ak.trc, do, fr , 

PB- Riieji janm ptt]y I'm Cfl3»rvv. Wagdd HI* 
ig (ct E>JP. An) clutn in lV area? Bvjn EUbbiU, 
1551 E. lOlh S Al, TtlPTMninalob. MM 55X10, 

1U-1U2 

The W'bltE Duke ntrijj juu! >"or |uvl one nimp 
>ti« -Hill ttvrH e a ial&c fflatWi nc rilhd >iElV HEP, 
AK.„ (Jri^im, WSIM (ina pJLH :n:cretunf u 
r.i-:.r< Sieve 5ruddn. b2Ic RDbcrlli, St., Luftt 

Brttfh.. MS 3?J» 

Winleri? Ill ulayci hIid ii »'.IIhie il, be dkslcn/edi 

tn UK in AF„ SL. PB. RW, SOS. WtJ, FT, M 

CH>nc Ah9 have (KhfT games, Hadjei Cudih.. 

v ,i . !'. V. .,. mi. ^l> JSfci\ ''J .'■' 

Hdji-I Adn.li nty'ttt t*n*t* n 

Si. COI. COD, KM, DIP. R. I. 

BOO El Cun.lfiit, iat Vncu, MV WIQi 

Fll npmnirrni in BurlinelOn Wdlnirboti' Ml. 

HjjHji prea„ Anv AH Ww|| or CWlffflpUTiry 

lame. Call me! Any dut»? Bob Brai;iLenle. U 

tto\ 7sh St., Burtinnwl, NJ OBI*. 

Ofl Of iv«, pUirff wim flf lOflpMVtfll « Tof 

SSI. fth, Sl», PB, AIW, BJid aEbet, Nbiib 

Ttmplm. CiiDeje Park Apb.. Bat «H. MahwaS, 

NJgTaJfl 

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COI. COD, OCA, AF. FL, GIL JR. Pflrt 
KiKiTrt. 7| h«jr Wind), Dr. Mi*Jltin%B. MJ 

fJTTM t tliYt)BTI.«lT 

I* jm OH *W pUj Br XM, E3D Tf Mfipw i«kiii 
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■■■ . in. IN? MrlroM \-. : Palmyrt. NJ BJBBa 
wmip ie wan fMiriipUyM t^yJued jr aamf 
dirti Minimum aer *fl Etftm J.n eTpenenoe. 
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or flf FT. FE.FR. GOA. PU, PL, SL. TRC, 3R, 
WAS. Tcffl Hutlnla. -Ul W . 3JI & . Bumi. NT 

CCHti.i;i;hm-7-1jp 

Plajtri "anted for HEkrK«fkll4n Ii* pJlJuiJ- 
pbffvcjun, St*»flSASt r«Ln(aEo(k>t>Coak r ioK 

<jl. Ct*o&. M¥ 13MTT 

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l-irtir Qief ]A and a wrioui finer,. l«ieici Tom 
lllel l?S,&Hl. Menrnn Thurvdiv IMJlHi, 
Mjim^i. Nt* VMh.SGLI, 227 S, Bik-vio AWU. 

Ff ttpgfi.Mr eimh. 

Winivd (If uppuneh-1 irt Nuuh *rrj,, I <«« 3* 
AH ifajnei and bai*- Jila>rf Hberi. Call alter 
.'r in Pawn Hurtej, But Wf KH1 .iclfavm Hill 

Rd.. NaMnii, NT Hill 

AXl; A iKflplaier loak Ine lar raltd pbm in TRC. 
An uilJne Id be evlhrr inlc. Katun LOpct, En I 
Bpi49', Nklwft, Wf nrJIi.tWJieWg^Jn' 
Aduh earner ieekv (e( hi Olran ira. tt, COI, 
COD. FE. TRC. TH. HUE CMbnri will filiy my 
AH UfW. Charbt WLUnt,. 1(1)3 PnsirhW A*e. . 

OleaJ. %\ 14760. iTlatlH-6461 

LnM'i RCM: MulN-pIairrf pbm fam** tnoEleEajed 
KM. Atqiwre. WS3M. C«. md mbei pamo. KM 
k evil.prpmk?n ■artalnM. Wntf for Minnie. 



Cill <h m-tvtt tur Bf COt. 5L COD, FtUJK.WO. 
rtltf raanj orb*:*. Pben iui)i of lEH^eeuept FE. 

Ujyjd.MiTman,5unmitCir . S^rr<n.._iW ITOt 
Or/ponenli bulled tir RW. LW , S3t>, Tavl I. Im. 
AOC. VlTP. *'AS. BuBfk, Pi F«l «ilj! JJive 
AftEA ranlni;, Witlinf <n brain othtr AH jamn. 
Ruben Wm Sdioneman, : RucrrCl,, Slflfnn. 

m ICWH. ;?M> 3.?T-?W» „_^_ 

I'tim opcionrnti »anltd (nr 5U COI. COO. 
W'*p, AIW, RW, SST. PL. pfl. CAfi, SUB. 
WSIM. IK. Oie honor ijiltm. Jt4in Dc Prrc, 60S 
Banki Si . . ClaJhirn, MC iTaiJ. VHff 2P-3IJ0 
AREA 4D0 seeLi limibirly rated VfporKi\n Ur 
E*m was. ALEX. A3W T*ir tynemi, D*ijd 
Kraaie. *M Monnujulh Dr.. Greembdro. NC 
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PbwnAZ.AM. ARLAtarti] FtNU.SUB.COD. 
5L, COI.CM.OL, BqydSrbnTWB. lj4(tN.W 
V.m t birm. Contfia. OK *TJP. IM-T^gj 

CSt Pur Hand b*ardbsimrf> wdni i* 1(MkJr*| for 
fanartiirtirtepoinlaiidmerrnarra.Th* P.1J, of 
Fen jnanir ieni^e< fur boarJaarrKiii. Sraf I Pii r-r . 
TfrB S,W ■JlEi, FOMlaBri. OR *^jj 
AH£A Hffi* «*TUl raced IWrl" apptwiem Frer 
PB, PL. You pkk wEurio I'll end udt Ah« 
TRtTif E-jjuir. Scpi *2 wmJih' uenfltfd AIW 
need ,vi:err. Rabeei hntx. fttrl Bm £2! CrccL 

M-. dart Sutnnh. PA IU1 1! 

Aduh wc*» faf opjwneoi* far BR. 1'W. SST. 
DUNE anil ol Tiers. All eanm mruldned. UriKe 
Bcrnaril. IZJJ. W. «.!. St., liff, PA Ifjff),. 

Jtfrl-?fl3a WJH-HrU 

Opuoncnli winlCil fur Culltprijus <; ft' play. I bB^c 
liver 100 5imi»lat|(MiT. WJie*e n. OenejaJ 
FeLdniri^ciel Spmul, ' Cbm FimijI, RD4 Btls 
T». Ml. PkaHrnt-PA li&M. Ul 3H3J-4*tj. 
Wihild lil(e m pbm STAL, nun.nlrd. Can n [ 
airmer all letter:.. WtO flf STAL, COA, PL, PEL 
TRC. BL.Ah\*AT. Wr4l lt*innew,(4rrrfl. LTm 
DHrMn, J*l¥ Alr4ci SL, POH, PA I52J2 
Warned: NT or pbm. rjrpcneiHi. Prefci PL. do 

have fS r? >it. 7 vf» nr HiMnM^mrimoK Pnui 

b^iwnj. Re. I tX BflUm* Wood*. M-jnelii 
laLrl.SCaj7i,t*a]|6JI-^tt7 

i'-.n--;. ■■■•■: H mMW ', I "•• nu ; t*.. 
COA. W ill pli> MEkti. kavc 6*er X AH i*nn>. 
Will i. n dQEjorilt tlt> liflti. Pirfer «firapaci» 
llvtn| near UT carnpuE. KrnDnh W. Clark. 65lfi 
lir arHo Lj., KftaTrille, TN JlTttH, «, I ?] 5W-TWI 
L-lT>erifiKMl adiui hauce rHim Id. Pi, WS]m, 
PB, WAS. Nerd ishtrmt Hnnm dioc rinlla only. 
A! ■.. 1 1 1 in I- !,;,.■ , , ,IIt rii ■-.! tw i J "' ; . kri: iilI !, 
Vnilh. JKH AwlE Rd;.. klnomiHf, TN VH». 

jzs.swa 



Unrated rriayei iecki uppooeill 

FL, SP, 1770 LOCtt a 

M.:hw. J»! When Kiiiee I Eiie. Oliver S.-rrim. TM 

17 M0. cbUj aJjt.THi? 

I mfonuiaok AREA | SOJ t *a(Ui pbm oppaaenti 
f« TRC. Oiil» ITOOl- need apply Ptefcf Rv,. 
turn bal udt rrei*talHf UcraWd AK, aTTAL. 
PB, WAT, DO, L*\ m OBiuaej.. 1201 Torr-n 

Ciiel 'X», Ai Im IM'S^ai 

Aim BaiMun tret M«(n new dub beme 
Eiariei], BiemberE warded, rmfer acev ||>-S) 
Alnridj, May MD, LW and Hhctt. Oiry PrUiw, 
T] 1 ilayd U,. BWg*rt, TX TTJH 
LoclinE i«r AREA titcd t^ayet in phiii-Tll in 
PB, L W. Mj, ritirn OXt p*(i¥. .Al» lontme foe Itl 
in SUB. MA. SA. SST. Dwiny MiBer. ASZ2 
VaMerMlL. DbPii, TS 752 14. Sll-SOl] 
Nwd pflm or fsf opparieiiii in All, AF. DALlrVT 
or J'U. PL. Sievr Overm, qM Belmoml, Odciia, 

IXTfm, I9l5|»;-27rji7 

Seek wwui pbm opponeiui Tor DD ur TRC- I 
-ili plav any ila>. Wrill lu LlJ* Mlf cj R-cMn, Jf . , 
HO South. Orwnbrjef 5c,, I60J. Aali.neLiM, VA 

OM juj.J B'afiaiFiTt Mckuit TH rf-nu'c at/go- 
IWH n* rMl> Ff,. S*l*i meotiable, flf only. RarMt> 
. 149 T Peanree .Aidi. Verffsia Bcatb, VA 

2HS6, -HgT-Baaa, 

Gamer iiil'ferine mlliilr Jwal ivmplont. Miedop' 
poncttUii *,n pIif SL. COi SUB. AF. TOB. 
AOC. V|Tt>. nrmny otTten. If Fou'ie pri d I'll 
ri3f. William OWdod, «H Ariftonj. BKd.. V* 

BeaC^ VA J545}, IBM) JW-ltjW 

Aduli pbm opnoneolii »alicrd lor FITW. AIW . 
PB, W5JM, FE. HB'II. Irir AlWlOff. 7J10-1 |irt 
Av». L M W ., Senile, WA Ml IT. HflH 7l*JI41 
Al ientLDEi. lookirui lor DIP playm 10 nan a pfan 
DIP gdnle. P'liv 1u ind I 5WIe 3 ^oitntry ebtoMtl 
Afifiwie C(merBa,EeT? Reipoorl inmedialelv 



Ve-cran 


earnes woold like lo flf m 


:od, im. 


AZ..FE 


FR, TRC, VE, AOCtnd miny oiheri. 


Alan R 


Wimtalrj. till Cook Ait 


Wiuonun 


K-r .I-. 


■.i m:j: .i'l.'Mi 





Colleclor's Corner 



Wauled C Tir Malia MEian counteii thai »em 
«nh otE| WaS'AOC vinan tuunlcrx rronr 
Qta. I f r Mu 1. %S if complete arttf p*" 1 f ctla 
R&land Ortlllffe. P.O. aoJL7JJ2Cc4Jete:Sialiaii„ 

purtwH. mc r?w; mui w.7s» 

Wuuco.' Gaurih trtwt Vol. B. Prrierariry « Mh 

Imrtl No irrom. WiB pay imuini prrtti 
Send uffei. Lrik "OtMDD, HanfH^d College. 
I ,,-m ■ i i' \ i v.m i:i*i«'.!*i 



Send fur lunnfi, SASE e 

am.erej. Due SdHei, 17 kdlenny Dr.. Aain 

caurt, CM. MIW'l Ji« CWbla. Ulnl -Jgr-iTyJ 

AlleMXm DIP Plajeiv! "The Embnuy" a new 
pbm ■ jine Jin jame optniiw Nt» I Send 12.00. a 
tntolioun:E7choH"«BOiti SAiU: iTw brtSs"h>. 
131) Hldrknbrook Or.. Knndon. VA 22(ffn. 

Wanlrd any out al rtrtnl famei; «,Jlk paj. lop 
dtijlii. i rodn, pAtlnk, Pkiwr wbt nr (aaf. Gimei 
■'hDiild be L-onplne. not nh:cvMril> in |n>d eIWi- 

d EMM tt. Wrenn, J I Jo i. Jeffeiun Sa.. 

imifinrt. VA 2*tjfJ. [TPl) 46J-H?5 

Fib tale: nun of prim warname* me|u>d|np. WM, 
CHAD, JLTTLAMD, plui 1en other irnnn, vend 
SAS£ In* till. AH ftafrKi a.re in e»d Eundltlutt. 
Kidh>Kl Fart, 3TH Urn Q'5Mni«r. M«<|uire. 
T>; 7? 1 50. 12I4|, oH I OfrJ J 

For ialr HU JHJ ib (real ibape. fjilly Ecitcn. 
■l. I Ban iB^^irhr^TXTgHStni-JOTA- 
W|Bri«J; she. toUo^utt) AH 0r>n Ol1tJ*aluT %l 
Iocs. »en*oaj, Dhfutebei , COABQ. Air Empire , 
Nmacfmi. Send oslj thd and urns EandiitohL 
WlBftflii m be- .ngfJUaJ, Bit fcUBinrt. Ull-lirrJi 

Soni b, Seat tle, WA m 44 

For tale of trade. JO ]imr>. mut> mim r | u al 
Anno, 1*14, U-Uoa.1. Baie-ball Strateei, 
(itltyibutt 'tiJ. limrr AJko General talk i^un. 
cm her majisiQTL SeenlSASL time Bu#jret>, Siai 
RuE.1t. Ban 22H-4. t Vlumtnn, MS MIDI, L*011 



loi Sale: 


Send SASt fin Int. AH [amn 


birrlj 


inrd and 


ate billed. Jut-ar, M*rjnin^t;b, 7nJ 


PnesuVnev. 


Ave.. Wavne, NJ OTajTO. 


l»0 


' ..: v.:.ii 







Fia- Sale: 2 copia, 1414. rniri v'.nU,; inn S40.E» 
ewh, invlndm( tXnittt and tumMwtm, Tjiei 
Wilmoch. 9Ki W . I Jrh Si reel. Tenpe. AZ n«2SI , 

W7-SMJ 

Foe Safe'Tradr; Out -uf-pflTO narftmrB tad 
nu[iJ.-ifir, iixluoinf Ta I a. lUiin-J | firtl ed.l twi], 
SiaJiQirad iBie Bo\. Fitii EdiliMi BtaTr "MM. 
SefldHi*mpf»rliM WaJh Wdbamt. J- . Al I S.I 
Hi Ai-e , CaaBcarwfc, FL HUH. pX a , >' ' 'i' 1 

TnrsiPc *.><■ Mat. hue r>lprinrt>inc> Some 

tn "ilfli «jndliwie, Send SASE for IeeI. Jobn C. 
I ,•». RR *i Elos. 2JJIAA, Mdnti«K:. I A «»?". 

|j|i»*aJ-74r» 

Am Erllmp pus^hprtnt Ail iiniei. Send SASE 
nt BrM, KrL.r, QtHtBB, 11225 OU Bdlto. Pike, 

pelltville, MP Htm. f3<U) «T-iiW 

For SaEe: mam -ilsamet Fw nrlC* Hu nk'SMr 
WfiitSASJr AU|nnn«|ne.i>ceJlenl1aralBKDndl- 
sion. Hpe« Pil n-rlio. aWJa Spinaini Seed, t uluni- 

bn, MD2EM5 

Fif "illf . R&ki l*t items' Die General in J LJ^kvirjiri 
iremv. Send SASE. Muu. sell all. M StepheBE. 2 

DctiUJCHJ Ran, aeakrvfllc. Ml Otttl 

Selllrjf all | jjuo-— tteu um, semd SASE for IrH erne 



Manaeemeni, Avaluti HjM'i liuimcii, ramr, ivd. 
Ireiuf "» iiew. j, bi wk! Ill ill i Ii w El *j«r »1m. Flwt 
our Inr vourwll, Inteul Atto other irid ejinev. 
EndkneSASE. Crrp-My fhiKi-i.j., IV1H 71rltSt„ 

tkojiktyn. NV I E2CH. l^W 

Fim !i9ll'E Vminu), |am« SrndSASF OiVimrfu, 
nt CunlbKl iliyiiEt am wanied Aim wameg; 
orifin^L ClhiiBnlhH e\ il'lc mtn^'jnl mi Km ; p ■ ■ - - , 
bleeorfdrlnn. jnhn M . D'A Jilanu. 5.1 t^ern tmtli 
Si .. CarrinH, KY liOW. fWff| 733-4&H 
Colleelori llemiu- Tot uk CiE'tt, CII'bL tom- 
plrlT. laaTJ f9"d e«nd. tfch oett of|ef over 12?. 
pluE pott. Aho Ouad. L-vtrmfele. Ueu oifee tuer 
S:u, n.d.rnl Ruberr Sallun, a4«0 W'nlmtmd. 
W,|lum^,n r . NT u;2|. B,M"K^> 



WanEnllE 


M 


jertnal Va| 


U. 


*4eH.A, Wdl pare 


top peiee 


WiiK 


iKhlde )Ol>r pruwe oo, 


But 


MnJi* iex- 


Ul 


rv'i'-iihmunr 


fi 


, Venma 


i'\ 


13147 













iced ra bu> . EJcBeral badi iwnm 
Volt, 1 1 EhnMib I J, niinei 13.1.1 M Si air iMaal 
Ud ptiet «H efcii- AH leneii and imqajriet 
Biitwered]. Datbd leiiv, Rl. I dot SHj. 
iu tlliptiHI, VA I2V4J, ilBM.li lM-5n I 
tVpmcd; ,J Jgujney* of Si. J'aiil" J ik< nr* enn. 
d. inn, pknve. B.I. . Carles . 3 105 W . I rinfclin V. . 

Rn-Haiotid, VA 1122* 

For EBte: irver TO uaipamcs inelutlini l : R and 
CiF'tt* plbt rnariv reloiAl rrtneii^iaei, Tieud ^ASt 
Il-i Bat, Mike tytabM, WU Madlwn M.. lka.ver 

Dam, Wl 33!eln, i^lJj I1Q-2WJI 

For tale.- CO&BO, aaid JFI iHhcrs., mun> old nf 

Uriiii. man* lUMdaldv. Send SASE lut Llo. prion. 

I..F Sperrj, p,fj, Bui IS*, ttietttivian. W] 

::j.=.j^Mllft 

Wanted old Geoc=ili I3/4CJ UfJ; 12/4;. IIJ5; 

IfJVo! lO.-i. 7/2, Win iiiik mini is/s ugj i*:j 

Muu be eonelele. Ar.swer al: 

SASEi.ChestcjE. HmdrM, IB3«Lir-irtOakRd.. 

OTiiHey. CA PftHfl. (■*!&> »??■ 1 1 S* 

Giant lame deanoa; ule Erer-'iliin.i muvl in' 
Many uui-or ■tifitH IHEev, -MtHf (OUrtiori nemi. 
Prion i-ay Id* r SA$a> (or Inc. Mirbael ChVereJI. 
KM W. Crmimil. Apl Fl. Entrepot. CA W& 

<IHIr3E7>fr.;7rj| 

AREA IdOQ wanlv pbrr, wpp:ncTit for TAC VI 
plat bo'b nd» n ao jameil Ml man mdudlflS 
BiKteir. heed! tjciEem adult pta^ei Briaa M. 
MtCuiii. 2* Llnikitnll Dr . TH 21W, EKwi Mdlt, 
OwafJO. CaJtada. 441^^ ?Q. 



For vale nuny iimei. tuek iwuentf ■■ 

ItM. JMau WWII boofci, Igw prteai Send 

SASE ft- BaT. Juhn Btu-na^ell. La Hackberrv 
Qr..Fetlort. til- lWJ.l.HOTiJU-5133. 
Need, of iaatiaJ vt prioto Eorry ol fapanete or ran or 
bftsle «4rd ri>r Ooatt. Will paj reuonaok tit. D. 
Gell^JTtjBeritoSl n. Hollyrn'ocd. FE J»2U, 

Foreale:TlieOene™I.VDl.3So,l,J.3,iJ,Vfl|,i 
Ko l-MaktanorTer. AkoaJnoUnew |«]a. AH 
Oflan answcrd. E7avrf Kimuflm, 7]fl AcaderBt 
Att.. Malieaon. | L MkHjI. 01 2] Wl-t3«, 
vfamed: I.uee prtce- |?]J |» eteEllcrU eoftdiNdei 
W,|| pay up Jo JM-JllV: Jrann iakf. Boi 17}. 

Wurlffd: Civil War Vld Objeakve; AlLtnu b» 
AIL Alio, limn (ur ude, ovl or-pnnE Mamee 
TMPt, Sqmnndff. eK. Send, SASE. Would prrrer 
so Erade. Kevin Combi, HJS Old JUJm pike, 

BdLmlht. MD 2QTQJ.. I Ml i W-.I4.9y_ 

For Die: Qbt Oenerak [,kmd e grid 1: ban, «i»EhJIVl 
(Fifrncd Pari e of Vol. 3 Ibru Vol. 7. Send self ad 
&eutd tiamped eritefope for Ihi and prion. 
Robes! Coddaid, JJS0 Peei. Muta.e*oB. -Ml 

hW444.|dIb)7I1-II6.|. 

Oarinj «H all WjErfianeil All mm pf. Qm 30 
dif lerrnt Kama, all slaabed ro half eOH and ken. 
Old Oswalt. Eofl. Send SASEfwpeim »imi M 
Tinrua,?. 24JJ7J Elnira, Hedfocd. Ml Ojjfl, 

■JIJiHiJa-6J»>. 

For ale-. L«l< i>L>AD many orhef AK (imet 
Send S5AE FM TeH To buySutis Pro MBAearit 
inn pre-tWi, (eriy Ooriflfl. [Hi Win|«kl, 
Hekma. MT 5W01 

t.- .:<■ I.. I :,-'; :-,;.-: I. ! hi ■' I - . i ■ ...r Vi. 

CI 04641, OOAD |all ei«Elenl {ondbuiil Hid 
BIS 0»:-faif eorhlilEWi}. Minimum bid per 

, l 130. I .IT, «n-.ir:i.i, ISH Malii,,, I J. 

: .,.--....,■,!. m i.^,ii. i ---c! i j **.-■. ;k^-. 

cawaj prica Write N - 
4 amuht. Ibrm. Dthrri 
t*ry ctieapi, BuilU >-flt»r wUev'tion it low- «n[, 
Greinr^ GutHtrAa. 141 K 7*lh St,, Hronkltn, HV 

11204, 2H-54MJ. 

Sell of laade: 1914, played ante; GUAO, tin- 
puncbed: 123 ea. or bew offer. BXS wdm. Wul 
CMC innTit tram , MU« Stepka. fK s, W. L St ., 

F(* tale, triEdf i OeBeral barf ilseret, aamep: tt)mr 
o«it ol prim. Send SASH for Bat, Brian WiJlaid. 
101 M--I Ate. F-2, Brrn Mlwr, FA 14010. 

m-tr>y 

Fur uIe: Good eondiiioa LemanE. orir:ruJ I4A1 
-.?■ ,.., . ■■. ,:.i,.* ..,, , ;> r, rafJk Hlinnrbid 
over S13 aoupieJ. Poi-paid: in USA, AKg, )M 
Breai Tnro S3. Henry W. lonet, 117 Lodiiaiia 
r> . CnriwiwiH,. FA nnai. f*i j| 4n-i2 n. 
For sale: lflU.i;i.Or;jnriilTAC IE '3a,*». Bolb 
e^elieen c^md SenrJ SASE tot IhM el mflr. Al 
Elmore. 4H2 Falcfaj. S... Fairfa*. VA i»)0. 

(7M3 371J7J1. ' 

Wanted: AH'* 1«l "Oril War" arid tfw AH'I 



ScniE bid and ilet«nr>e lame eundiLiun. Erio 
Manrln. H||4r>b Sg.. SWOr, WA4g|44 (JM, 

A'inELiI A -n.ipf i»l A hi "vuiiander m fArf i,. Un 
iLHidilinn will kvepc teavDnabk of lee. AH juilv 
^iii ImU'Ji. ">i:jIl- R. tiiltciii, Cieneral UeliiterE, 
Puiriey, \ I l)5J4o. I tOl I 3*7.3*05 
Seajik-'s birefti fifi*nl|tarne ,Ub - W w«kH ai 
tend tMl-iastaiujin l nu ofWairt hlU.B 



I'lLiMin raiiirv mdbvknnp I R and (JEW rdin nt an- 
niilri IBJiFa^iie*. S<r-d SAA% Tc* btr MH* 
kahelvli, 4M MaJimn Si., Reaver Dan. Wl 

y?i*- '*i*i g T -' w| 

CnOeehan' OoibI EVodlllon CIVIL WAR '(El f» 
uk, Se*nt niirr ^„J SASE Fi" Rom, iW 

UBiiervM> Air , Madivnn. W't ROOf. IftWI 

m-3iii 

Wauled: I MS lAH h. Ol>|. A?. |AHl. NW I All)- 
Hrrlig so lairi Voean, 315 llirdini Ate.. 

Maneeai, -LA &M 



GENERAL BACK ISSUES 



Only [he Mlli'« iiilz GL.VLRAl b:Kk is&ufs iire still available. Price is $2.50 per issue plus W'a pas, age 
and handtine ehirges (20^ ,o Canada. 30 P% overseas), Maryland residents please add 5S% siale sales las, 
GENERAL jx,s,agc coupons may w»l be used forthb Off other non-same orders. Due ro I lie low quanlicics 
of sonic back issues wcrequesnba, you specify alternate selections should yotir ftfs, choice be unavailable. 
Below is a listing of each issue by subject mailer; game abbicvialtons arc ttaj:ci/cd and I'ound in the 




Oppunenis Wanted ad inscr, in ihis Issue and article lypes arc identified as follows: H— Historical 
Background. DN— Dessaner's Notes. V— Variant SR— Scries Replay (sample game), 5— Strategy, 
Q— Quesiions, P— PBM fpostal) systems. Sc— Scenarios, A— Analysts, T]ie targes, (feature) articles arc 
always the First one listed in each issue. Those issue numbers primed in red indicate one-color rcprims of 
previously oul-of-prln, issues. 

12-2: 7B— H. DM; B8— V; Ft— V; PB— Sit: PL-DN; STAL—S; AZ—Q 

14.2: KM-S, H, P, ON, V; AL-SR; Si-DN 

14-3: AIW— H. DN. S. Q; TRC—S; 3R—S] STAL-SRl IVAS-V; PB—Sc 

14-4: 1777>— DN. V, Q; Jrt-S: BH'-V: STAL— SR; JU-P; 1776— S 

14-S: SL— H. A. DN. Q; H'SCfAf— A: TRC— S; MD-S; SST-S; J«— S 

14-6: DO-DN. V; flTP-SR; PL-V; CI-Sc, 7B— Sc 

15-1: PL— V, Sc; STAL-V; JH-V; DO— DN: KB-S: tTTP—S 

1S-3: AOC-S. A. ON, 5c: TRC-V: JK-V: SL-V: »AS—V 

15-5: A/0— V; WS&IM—Sc; AK—S; OR-V: JR-V: DD—S. WAS-V, SST— Se; SL-V; CAE—S: FL- 

SUB—Q 
1S-6: CU1— A. DN. S. Sc. 0; rVJtS—V; .1/11 —St SST— Sc; CI.— V 
16-1: AZ— Sc, S, DN; iP— S; W-5; PB— SR: /77«— S; D/P-S 
16-2; BK-A. Sc. H, DN, Q; Pfl— SR; /(A'-S; /77S— S: WS&IM— S 
16Jr PC— A; IC>|C— s, H; ra— Sc; CO/— SR; I7?ri— S; MC— V 
16-1; MR—\, V. DN, Q; CO/— S; JR-S; TBC— SR 

16-5; TRC— S: S(/fl— Sc; SST-S; WAS— S; />fl— V; RS— V; AMP— S; COD—Q 
16* DUNE— A; D1P—V: OS-V; AZ— DN. Sc, SR; PS— A. PBM 

17-1; It's?/ 1 — A. DN, V, (J; Jfl— 5; C0/-S; MO-V: COO-A; ,WR— V; ill- S; IMS-SR 
17-2: COD— A, Si. Q; WAT-Si; VITP-SR 

17-3; AK-S; IRS; CODS. Q.AF—A. DN; TRC—V; I7ITP—V; CO/— SR 
IH; /-£— S. P. DN, V; MO— V. 0: COI— SR; l'/7J>— S: /?76-Sc: irQ-A: SST-V; .VAP-S 
n-5: CM-S. V, Q; Rlf-V; SL-V] STAL-V, PL-Si 3R—S; CAE—V; KM— S; J*— SR; MR— S 
17-6: STAL— S; IfSi/M-V.Sc: WAS— V; JR— SR; Si— S; TLD-Q: CL—S: VITP—S; TRC—S 
1*4: firH'-A, 0: ff/S— S: St-S: OUfiE—V: DIP—%; AK-A; Pfl-SR: 4/.-S: lf<tP-S 
18-2: I/ 7 — A. Sc. 0: AK— V; 3R— DN; Tfl— V; St-S,Sc; AIW-V; VITP—S; DIPS, DD—S 
11-3: C04-S. DN. V. Q; 40C-V, Sc; AK—S. VITP—V, SLS. Sc; M'Si/M-SR. P: D/P-S 



READER BUYER'S GUIDE 

FLATTOP $18.00 

Operational Level Came of Carrier 
Strikes in the Pacific 

AH 1981 edition only 

INSTRUCTIONS: Rate all categories by placing 
a number ranging from I through 9 in the ap- 
propriate spaces to liie right (1 equaling excellent; 
5-averagc; and 9-terrible). EXCEPTION; Rate 
item No. 10 in terms of minutes necessary to play 
game as recorded in 10-mtnuie. increments. 
EXAMPLE: If you've found that it lakes two and 
a half hours 10 play FRANCE 1940, yon would 
give it a GAME LENGTH rating of "15." For 
games with more than one version give two game 
length ratings; one for the shortest scenario and 
another following a slash mark "V" for the 
longest scenario or Campaign Game, 

Participate in these reviews only if you are 
familiar with the game in question. 

1. Physical Quality _ 

2. Mapbaard _ 

3. Com patients 

4. Ease of Understanding 

5. Completeness of Rules 

6. Play Balance 

1. Realism 

B, Excitement Level _ 

B. Overall Value _ 

10. Game Length /— 

The review sheet may be cut out, photocopied, 

or merely drawn on a separate sheet of paper. 

'-Mail it to our 4517 Harford Road address with 

t your contest entry or opponents wanted ad. Mark 

\ such correspondence to the attention of the R & 

i D Dene rt men t. 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

Opponent Wa 

L Want-ads will be accepted only when printed on this form or a facsimile and must be accom- 
panied by a ,50t lokcn Tec, No refunds. Payment may be made in uncancelled U.S. postage stamps. 

2. For Sale, Trade, or Warned To Buy ads will be accepted only when dealing with collector's 
items (out of print AH games) and are accompanied by a $1.00 token fee r No refunds. 

3. Insert copy on tines provided :(25 ■words maximum) and print name, address^ and phone 
number on the appropriate lines, 

4. Please PRINT. Jf your ad is illegible, it will not be printed. 

5. So that as many ads as possible can be printed within our limited space, wc request that you use 
official state and game abbreviations. Don't list your entire co! lection H list only those you are most 
interested in locating opponents for. 

Afrika Korps — AK, Air Force— AF. Alexander— A L T Amoeba Wars — AW. Anzio — A7. r Arab- 
Israeli Wars— AIW. Assaull On Crete/ Invasion Of Malta— AOC. Bismarck— BIS, Black 
Spy— BS, Bliukrie|— BL, Battle Of The Bulge— BB t Caesar Alesia— CAH B Caesar's 
Legions— CL. Chancellors ville— CH, Circus Maximum— CM, Cross Of Iron— COl. Crescendo Of 
Doom— COD, Dauntless— DL, D-Day— DD r Diplomacy— DIP, Down with The King— DWTK, 
Keudal-FU Flat Top— FT, Fortress Europa— FE, France 40— PR, Fury In The West— FITW, 
Gettysburg— GE. Gladiator— GL. Guns Of August— GO A, Jutland— JU n Kingmaker— KM, The 
Longest Day — TLD, Luftwaffe— LW„ Machiavelli— MA, Magic Realm— MR, Midway— MD h 
Napoleon— MP. Origins— OR. Outdoor Survival— OS. PanxerbUt*— PR, Panzer Leader— PL, 
Rail Baron— RB, Richthofen's War — RW, The Russian Campaign— TRC, Samurai — SA, Squad 
Leader— SL h Stalingrad— ST AL, Stars hip Troopers— SST, Storm Over Arnhem— SOA, Source 
Of The Nile— SON, Submarine— SUB, Tactics II— TAC, Third Reich— 3R. Tobruk— TB, 
Triremc~TR H Victory In The Pacific— VLTP, War and Peace— W&P, War At Sea— WAS, 
Waterloo-WAT, Wizards Quest— WQ, Wooden Ships &. Iron Men— WSIM 




♦ 



THE GENERAL 

PLAYING? 



Top ten lists are seemingly always in vogue these days. Whether the sub- 
ject is books on (he Best Seller List, television's Nielsen ratings, or even 
games, the public never seems to tire of seeing how their individual favorites 
slack up numerically against the competition. Our preoccupation with this 
national pastime is almost akin lo routing the home team on to victory every 
Sunday. So to further cater to your whims (and to satisfy our own curiosity) 
we unveil THE GENERAL'S version of the gamer's TOP TEN. 

We won't ask you to objectively rate any game. That sort of thing is 
already done in these pages and elsewhere. Insiead, we ask that you merely 
list the three (or less) games which you've spent the most time with since you 
received yo u r last i ssue o f THE GENERA 1 . W i th t h is we can generate a co n - 
sensus list of what's being played . . . not just what is being bought. The 
degree of correlation between the Best Selling Lists and the Most Played List 
should prove interesting. 

Feel free to list any game regardless of manufacturer. There will be a 
built-in Avalon Hill bias to the survey because you all play Avalon Hill games 
lo some extent but it should be no more prevalent than similar projects under- 
taken by other magazines with a special interest -based circulation. The 
amount to which this bias affects the final outcome will be left to the in- 
dividual's discretion. 

The games I've spent the most time playing during the past two months 
are: 



I. 

2.. 

3.. 



Contest No. 104 

ll is early in the match (last combat resolution step of the final phase 
in turn #1) of a campaign game and gladiator "A" is already wounded. 
Determine the best combination of attack and defense allocations for 
gladiator "A", to inflict significant injuries to gladiator "B" while still 
retaining a skillful de Tense. 

GIVEN 

1. Both gladiators are "Lights". 

2. Gladiator "A": 

a. Physical characteristics: TR = 7, ST = 5, AG = 1, CON = 4, W 
= 13. 

b. Has "C" armor in the groin area and is armed with a sword and 
large shield. 

c. Has received 4 arm wounds and I stun. 

3. Gladiator "B": 

a. Physical characteristics: TR = 9, ST = 0, AG = 1, CON = 3, W 
= 9. 

b. Has "A7" armor for the head area, "C" armor for the groin and 
is armed with a sword and small shield. 

c. Is left-handed and has dropped his shield. 



1 


Attack & Defense Allocations 

2 3 4 5 12 3 4 


S 






r 


























































Issue as a whole . . . (Rate from I id 111. with I equaling excellent. 1(1 dusting terrible! 
Be* I 3 A nicks 



NAME. 



PHONE. 



ADDRESS. 
CITY 



STATE. 



ZIP. 



i. 

j. 

\AMK 



ADDHKSS _ 
CITY 



THE GENERAL 



Scenario L 



THE LONG ROAD 




SOUTH Of ANDR1BA, MADAGASCAR, September 16th, 1942: The 

King's African Rifles with detachments of A Squadron, 1st Armoured Car 
had worked their way from the port of Majunga halfway (o the capital city 
Tananarive, The Vichy defenders were handicapped both by the limited 
means at their disposal and the mixed emotions of many of their men. The 
Commonwealth troops at once represented both the best hope for a revived 
France and invaders of French soil. After a number of false starts and a series 
of minor demolitions the Vichy decided to block the major road to the capital 
as a matter of honor. 



Board Configuration 



N a 



VICTORY CONDITIONS 

To win, the Commonwealth player must exit five squads, one leader, 
and one Armored Car with functioning armament south of hexes X10, 
Y10 or Z10 by game's end. 




TURN RECORD CHART 



@ Vichy sets up first 



Q Commonwealth moves firs! 



1 



2 



3 



4 



5 



7 



8 



9 



END 



© 



Vichy forces: May setup hidden anywhere between hexes Q and FF inclusive south of any hex numbered three inclusive; 














WIRE 

mm 


f s 


it <=* 
(2 


4-5-7 


1-8-8 


i MMB 
B12 




Commonwealth forces: Enter on or within two hexes {thus each entry is 5 hexes wide) of any one north edge road; 













ATR 10* 

■ 


I' 


|! 


1 = 


M 

4-5-7 


+ LMG 

4 " 

— 



10 



SPECIAL RULES 



L.l All bridges are destroyed. 

L.2 Vichy MMGs have a breakdown number of 10. 

L.3 Vichy units may setup hidden in nonwoods gully hexes but are exposed 

the instant any Commonwealth unit achieves LOS to that hex. 

L.4 The Commonwealth player is allowed only two scouts for the entire 

game. 

L.S Note that boresighting is allowed and that the armored cars cannot 

enter wire hexes. 



AFTERMATH! In the face of substantial fire [he Commonwealth troops 
attacked "with gusto". Gusto not withstanding, the combination of Vichy fire and 
hastily constructed abatis forced the African units to find a detour. The Com- 
monwealth flanking maneuver permitted the advance to continue in the morning. On 
November 5th the Vichy units in Madagascar formally surrendered.